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CAAB: 37102022

Species Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees, 1961

Salamanderfish, Dwarf Pencilfish, Long-finned Galaxias, Mud Minnow, Scaled Galaxias

Compiler and date details

21 June 2011 - Dianne J. Bray




Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Southwest WA from Albany (35º01'S, 117º49´E) north to Balingup Brook south of Grimwade (33º44'S, 116º04'E) and west to upper Vasse River (33º50'S, 115º20´E), WA; temperate.

Australian Endemic.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


WA: Jarrah Forest (JF), Warren (WAR)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Bottom-dweller, freshwater.

Extra Ecological Information

Individuals aestivate in small burrows when lakes dry up.


General References

Allen, G.R. 1982. Inland Fishes of Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 86 pp. 6 figs 20 pls. [19]

Allen, G.R. 1989. Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Neptune, New Jersey : T.F.H. Publications 240 pp., 63 pls. [32]

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 394 pp. [119]

Allen, G.R., N.J. Cross & D.F. Hoese 2006. Lepidogalaxiinae. pp. 400-401 in Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. & Allen, G.R. Fishes. In, Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 35. Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3, 2178 pp.

Berra, T.M., D.M. Sever & G.R. Allen 1989. Gross and histological morphology of the swimbladder and lack of accessory respiratory structures in Lepidogalaxias salamandroides, an aestivating fish from Western Australia. Copeia 1989: 850-856

Berra, T.M. & Allen, G.R. 1989. Burrowing, emergence, behaviour, and functional morphology of the Australian salamanderfish, Lepidogalaxias salamandroides. Fisheries (Bethesda) 14(5): 2-10

Berra, T.M. & Allen, G.R. 1991. Population structure and development of Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Pisces: Salmoniformes) from Western Australia. Copeia 1991: 845-850

Berra, T.M. & Allen, G.R. 1995. Inability of salamanderfish, Lepidogalaxias salamandroides, to tolerate hypoxic water. Records of the Western Australian Museum 17: 117

Berra, T.M. & Pusey, B.J. 1997. Threatened fishes of the world: Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees, 1961 (Lepidogalaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 201-202

Christensen, P. 1982. The distribution of Lepidogalaxias salamandroides and other small fresh-water fishes in the lower south-west of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 65: 131-141

Gill, H.S. & D.L. Morgan 1999. Larval development of the salamanderfish, Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees (Lepidogalaxiidae). Copeia 1999((1)): 219-224

Leung, L.K-P. 1988. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Lepidogalaxias salamandroides and its phylogenetic significance. Gamete Research 19: 41-49

Li, J., Xia, R., McDowall, R.M., Lopéz, J.A., Lei, G. & Fu, C. 2010. Phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Lepidogalaxias salamandroides with comment on the orders of lower euteleostean fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57(2): 932-936

Martin, K.L.M., T.M. Berra & G.R. Allen. 1993. Cutaneous aerial respiration during forced emergence in the Australian salamanderfish, Lepidogalaxias salamandroides. Copeia 1993: 875-879

McDowall, R.M. & Burridge, C.P. 2011. Osteology and relationships of the southern freshwater lower euteleostean fishes. Zoosystematics and Evolution 87(1): 7–185 [Date published 21 March 2011]

McDowall, R.M. & Pusey, B. 1983. Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees — a redescription, with natural history notes. Records of the Western Australian Museum 11(1): 11-23

Merrick, J.R. & Schmida, G.E. 1984. Australian Freshwater Fishes Biology and Management. Sydney : J.R. Merrick 409 pp. figs 280 col. figs. [79]

Morgan, D.L., Gill, H.S. & Potter, I.C. 2000. Age composition, growth and reproductive biology of the salamanderfish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides: a re-examination. Environmental Biology of Fishes 57: 191-204

Pusey, B.J. 1986. The effect of starvation on oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion in Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 156: 701–705

Pusey, B.J. 1989. Aestivation in the teleost fish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Mees). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 92A: 137-138

Pusey, B.J. 1990. Seasonality, aestivation and the life history of the salamanderfish Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Pisces: Lepidogalaxiidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 29: 15-26

Pusey, B.J. & Stewart, T. 1989. Internal fertilisation in Lepidogalaxias salamandroides Mees (Pisces: Lepidogalaxiidae. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 97(1): 69-79

Rosen, D.E. 1974. Phylogeny and zoogeography of salmoniform fishes and relationships of Lepidogalaxias salamandroides. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 153(2): 267-325 figs 1-45

Unmack, P.J. 2001. Biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography 28: 1053-1089 [1060]

Waters, J.M., López, J.A. & Wallis, G.P. 2000. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of galaxiid fishes (Osetichthyes: Galaxiidae): dispersal, vicariance, and the position of Lepidogalaxius salamandroides. Systematic Biology 49(4): 775-795

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89(1): 11-127 [35] (237)

Williams, R.R.G. 1997. Bones and muscles of the suspensorium in the Galaxioids and Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Teleostei: Osmeriformes) and their phylogenetic significance. Records of the Australian Museum 49(2): 139-166


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
06-Jun-2016 ARGENTINIFORMES 09-Nov-2015 MODIFIED Dr Dianne Bray (NMV) Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Dr Matthew Lockett (AM)
06-Jun-2016 ARGENTINIFORMES 23-Feb-2014 ADDED Dr Dianne Bray (NMV) Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Dr Matthew Lockett (AM)
06-Jun-2016 21-Jun-2011 MODIFIED
20-Aug-2014 MODIFIED