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25 May 2016 - Dianne J. Bray, Douglass F. Hoese & Matthew M. Lockett

30 April 2014 - Dianne J. Bray & Douglass F. Hoese

20 December 2006 - Douglass F. Hoese


There is ongoing debate regarding the higher relationships of the ray-finned fishes. Relationships were previously studied by Begle (1991, 1992) and Fink (1984). The Argentiniformes was divided into the suborders Argentinioidei and Alepocephaloidei (Johnson & Patterson 1996; Hoese et al. 2006; Nelson 2006; Wiley & Johnson 2010). However, other workers have included the group in the Order Osmeriformes, or sometimes as the Argentiniformes (Eschmeyer & Fong 2013, Wilson & Williams 2010).

Molecular studies have suggested a very different classification. The molecular phylogenetic studies of Lavoué et al. (2008) and Poulsen et al. (2009), recognised the orders Osmeriformes and Alepocephaliformes, and placed the alepocephaloids as the sister group to Ostariophyisi. Li et al. (2010) and Betancur-R et al. (2014) suggested that the Osmeriformes should be restricted to the Retropinnidae, Osmeridae, Plecoglossidae and Salangidae. They recognised the orders Alepocephaliformes (as sister group to Ostariophyisi), Galaxiiformes, and Lepidogalaxiiformes.

Until further studies resolve the apparent conflict, we retain the classification outlined in Wiley & Johnson (2010). Argentiniformes, as recognised here, are found predominantly in deepsea environments.


General References

Begle, D.P. 1991. Relationships of the osmeroid fishes and the use of reductive characters in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Zoology 40(1): 33-53

Begle, D.P. 1992. Monophyly and relationships of argentinoid fishes. Copeia 1992(2): 350-366

Betancur-R, R., Wiley, E., Bailly, N, Miya, M., Lecointre, G. & Ortí, G. 2014. Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes —Version 3.

Fink, W.A. 1984. Basal Teleosts: relationships. pp. 202-206 in Moser, H.G. et al. (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Special Publication 1: 1-760

Johnson, G.D. & Patterson, C. 1996. Relationships of lower euteleostean fishes. pp. 251-332 in Stiassny, M.L.J., Parenti, L.R. & Johnson, G.D. (eds). Interrelationships of Fishes. San Diego : Academic Press 496 pp.

Lavoué, S., Miya, M., Poulsen, J.Y. Møller, P.R. & Nishida, M. 2008. Monophyly, phylogenetic position and inter-familial relationships of the Alepocephaliformes (Teleostei) based on whole mitogenome sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 1111–1121

Li, J., Xia, R., McDowall, R.M., Lopéz, J.A., Lei, G. & Fu, C. 2010. Phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Lepidogalaxias salamandroides with comment on the orders of lower euteleostean fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57(2): 932-936

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp. [190]

Poulsen, J.Y., Møller, P.R., Lavoué, S., Knudsen, S.W., Nishida, M. & Miya, M. 2009. Higher and lower-level relationships of the deep-sea fish order Alepocephaliformes (Teleostei: Otocephala) inferred from whole mitogenome sequences. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 98(923–936)

Wiley, E.O. & Johnson, G.D. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. pp. 123-182 in Nelson, J.S., Schultze, H.-P. & Wilson, M.V.H. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. München, Germany : Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil 480 pp.

Williams, R.R.G. 1987. The phylogenetic relationships of the salmoniform fishes based on the suspensiorium and its muscles. PhD Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Wilson, M.V.H. & Williams, R.R.G. 2010. Salmoniform fishes: key fossils, supertree, and possible morphological synapomorphies. pp. 379–409 in Nelson, J.S., Schultze, H.-P. & Wilson, M.V.H. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. München, Germany : Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil 480 pp.


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
06-Jun-2016 PROTACANTHOPTERYGII 25-May-2016 MODIFIED Dr Doug Hoese Dr Matthew Lockett
20-Nov-2015 ARGENTINIFORMES 19-Nov-2015 REVIEWED Dr Dianne Bray (NMV) Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Dr Matthew Lockett (AM)
08-Oct-2015 ARGENTINIFORMES 05-Jul-2015 MODIFIED Dr Dianne Bray (NMV) Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Dr Matthew Lockett (AM)
06-Jun-2016 13-Jun-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)