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25 May 2016 - Dianne J. Bray & Douglass F. Hoese


There have been various conflicting views presented regarding relationships within this group (see discussion in Wiley & Johnson 2010). We follow Johnson & Patterson (1996) for the classification of the superorder Protacanthopterygii, recognising two orders from Australia: Salmoniformes and Argentiniformes. The order Esociformes is often placed here, but Johnson & Patterson (1996) assigned it to a separate superorder, the Neognathi. Nelson (1994), however, recognised three orders, Salmoniformes, Osmeriformes and Esociformes, treating the deepsea forms as suborders (Argentinoidei and Alepocephaloidei) of Osmeriformes. These two deepsea groups are treated here as suborders of the Argentiniformes. More recently, Nelson (2006) recognised four orders: Argentiniformes, Esociformes, Osmeriformes and Salmoniformes, separating the Osmeriformes from the Salmoniformes. In this work, however, Osmeriformes are treated as a suborder of Salmoniformes. Wiley & Johnson (2010) placed the Esocoidei as a suborder of the Salmoniformes based on molecular work in López et al. 2004. Eschmeyer & Fong (2013) recognised the orders Escociformes, Osmeriformes and Salmoniformes. They included only the Salmonidae in the Salmoniformes and in included the argentiniform fishes within the Osmeriformes. That work appeared to follow Wilson & Williams (2010), who presented evidence for an Order Salmoniformes, and the separate Order Osmeriformes that included the Southern Hemisphere families Lepidogalaxiidae, Galaxiidae, and Retropinnidae, plus the Northern Hemisphere families Osmeridae, Salangidae and Plecoglossidae, and a wide diversity of oceanic fishes, including Argentinidae and other families. Li et al. (2010) and Betancur-R et al. (2014) recognised the orders Galaxiiformes and Lepidogalaxiiformes, and suggested that the Osmeriformes be restricted to the Retropinnidae, Osmeridae, Plecoglossidae and Salangidae. Pending further studies, we retain the classification of Wiley & Johnson (2010).

Argentiniformes are found predominantly in deepsea environments, whereas Salmoniformes occur largely in fresh water, although many species spend part of their life cycle in marine environments. Esociformes are found only in fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere.


General References

Betancur-R, R., Wiley, E., Bailly, N, Miya, M., Lecointre, G. & Ortí, G. 2014. Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes —Version 3.

Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. 2013. Species of Fishes by family/subfamily. Catalog of Fishes. Online version updated 2 July 2013.

Johnson, G.D. & Patterson, C. 1996. Relationships of lower euteleostean fishes. pp. 251-332 in Stiassny, M.L.J., Parenti, L.R. & Johnson, G.D. (eds). Interrelationships of Fishes. San Diego : Academic Press 496 pp.

Li, J., Xia, R., McDowall, R.M., Lopéz, J.A., Lei, G. & Fu, C. 2010. Phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Lepidogalaxias salamandroides with comment on the orders of lower euteleostean fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57(2): 932-936

López, J. A., Chen W. J. & Ortí, G. 2004. Esociform phylogeny. Copeia 2004: 440-464

Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York : John Wiley & Sons 600 pp.

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.

Wiley, E.O. & Johnson, G.D. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. pp. 123-182 in Nelson, J.S., Schultze, H.-P. & Wilson, M.V.H. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. München, Germany : Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil 480 pp.

Wilson, M.V.H. & Williams, R.R.G. 2010. Salmoniform fishes: key fossils, supertree, and possible morphological synapomorphies. pp. 379–409 in Nelson, J.S., Schultze, H.-P. & Wilson, M.V.H. Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts. München, Germany : Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil 480 pp.


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
06-Jun-2016 PROTACANTHOPTERYGII 25-May-2016 MODIFIED Dr Doug Hoese Dr Matthew Lockett
12-Feb-2010 (import)