Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory



<I>Parapercis ramsayi</I>

Parapercis ramsayi


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CAAB: 37390000


Grubfishes, Sandperches, Weaverfishes, Weevers

Compiler and date details

13 June 2018 - Dianne J. Bray, Douglass F. Hoese, Gerald R. Allen, Norbert J. Cross & Connie J. Allen

23 September 2015 - Dianne J. Bray, Douglass F. Hoese, Gerald R. Allen, Norbert J. Cross & Connie J. Allen

May 2012 - Gerald R. Allen, Norbert J. Cross & Connie J. Allen


The family Pinguipedidae contained about 54 species in five genera in 2006 (Nelson 2006), with most species belonging to Parapercis. Currently 90 species are recognised (Randall 2008; Johnson & White 2012, Johnson & Motomura 2017, Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2018). The Australian fauna is represented by 35 species in three genera, with most belonging to the single genus Parapercis, although one of the species is probably undescribed. Two additional species are known from Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Grubfishes are bottom-dwelling inhabitants of sand and rubble areas, frequently in the vicinity of reefs. They occur both in the tropics and in cooler temperate seas worldwide. Food items include mainly benthic crustaceans, especially crabs and prawns. The body is somewhat cylindrical and elongate. The snout is relatively pointed, eyes are oriented upward, and the upper lip is enlarged. The maximum length is about 70 cm, although most are less than 30 cm.

Randall (2001) treated some pinguipedids and the Indo-Pacific grubfishes or weevers (genus Parapercis) were reviewed by Cantwell (1964) with a supplementary treatment by Schultz (1968). A number of tropical Australian species were studied by Stroud (1982). Several species have been subsequently added (Johnson 2006, Johnson & White 2012, Johnson & Motomura 2017, Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2018).

Imamura & Matsuura (2003) discussed relationships of the Pinguipedidae and separated the New Zealand Cheimarrichthys from the family. Thacker et al (2015). placed the family within the Uranoscopiformes, along with the Uranoscopidae, Cheimarrichthyidae, Ammodytidae and Leptoscopidae.

Rudie Kuiter kindly provided information on this family. He considered that the family requires further study and that names may change in the future. The group is currently under study by J. Johnson of the Queensland Museum.


General References

Cantwell, G.E. 1964. A revision of the genus Parapercis, family Mugiloididae. Pacific Science 18(3): 239-280

Imamura, H. & Matsuura, K. 2003. Redefinition and phylogenetic relationships of the family Pinguipedidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyological Research 50: 259-269

Johnson, J.W. 2006. Two new species of Parapercis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) from north-eastern Australia, and rediscovery of Parapercis colemani Randall & Francis, 1993. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63(1): 47-56

Johnson, J.W. & Motomura, H. 2017. Five new species Parapercis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) from southeast Asia and northwest Australia. Zootaxa 4320(1): 121-145

Johnson, J.W. & White, W.T. 2012. Parapercis pariomaculata (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from Lombok and Bali, Indonesia and remarks on the validity of P. quadrispinosa (Weber 1913). Zootaxa 3319: 57–68

Johnson, J.W. & Worthington Wilmer, J. 2018. Three new species of Parapercis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) and first records of P. muronis (Tanaka, 1918) and P. rubromaculata Ho, Chang & Shao, 2012 from Australia. Zootaxa 4388(2): 151-181

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.

Randall, J.E. 2001. Pinguipedidae. pp. 3501-3510 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 6 pp. 3381-4218.

Randall, J.E. 2008. Six new sandperches of the genus Parapercis from the western Pacific, with description of a neotype for P. maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 19: 159-178

Schultz, L.P. 1968. Four new fishes of the genus Parapercis with notes on other species from the Indo-Pacific area (family Mugiloididae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 124(3636): 1-16 figs 1-4

Stroud, G.J. 1982. The taxonomy and biology of the genus Parapercis (Teleostei : Mugiloididae) in Great Barrier Reef waters. Unpublished PhD thesis, James Cook University, Townsville.

Thacker, C.E., Takashi P., Satoh, T.P., Katayama, T., Harrington, R.C., Eytan, R.I. & Near, T.J. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Percomorpha resolves Trichonotus as the sister lineage to Gobioidei (Teleostei: Gobiiformes) and confirms the polyphyly of Trachinoidei. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 172–179

Waite, E.R. 1899. Scientific results of the trawling expedition of H.M.C.S. Thetis off the coast of New South Wales. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 4: 1-132 figs 1-10 pls 1-31 [pl. 25]


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
31-Jul-2018 PINGUIPEDIDAE 13-Jun-2018 MODIFIED Dr Doug Hoese Dr Matthew Lockett
08-Oct-2015 TRACHINOIDEI 23-Sep-2015 MODIFIED Dr Dianne Bray (NMV) Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Dr Matthew Lockett (AM)
22-Sep-2011 22-Sep-2011 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)