Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

External Links

CAAB: 37246020

Species Craterocephalus fluviatilis McCulloch, 1912

Murray Hardyhead, Mitchellian Freshwater Hardyhead, Mitchellian Hardyhead, Western Crat, Western Freshwater Hardyhead



The type material of Cratericephalus fluviatilis McCulloch, 1912 was re-identified and synonymised with C. eyresii (holotype and 2 of 5 paratypes) and C. fulvus (remaining 3 paratypes) by Ivantsoff (1978). However subsequent genetic analysis has shown that C. eyresii consists of four different species, one of which is C. fluviatilis as diagnosed by the holotype and two paratypes of McCulloch, 1912 (see Crowley & Ivantsoff 1990). Adams et al. (2011) found evidence for 4 genetically distinct populations within Craterocephalus fluviatilis.




New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria

Extra Distribution Information

Southern NSW and VIC, mainly along the Murray River and connected waterways (to 143º47'E), and lower Murray River, SA (139º36'E); temperate, probably locally extinct in most areas, except for VIC .

Australian Endemic.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)
drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones (map not available)


NSW, SA, Vic: Murray Darling Depression (MDD), Riverina (RIV)

Original AFD Distribution Data

Australian Region

  • Australia
    • New South Wales: Murray-Darling basin
    • South Australia: Lake Eyre basin
    • Victoria: Murray-Darling basin

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Freshwater, pelagic.


General References

Adams, M., Wedderburn, S.D., Unmack, P.J., Hammer, M.P. & Johnson, J.B. 2011. Use of congeneric assessment to reveal the linked genetic histories of two threatened fishes in the Murray-Darling basin, Australia. Conservation Biology 25(4): 767-776 [772]

Allen, G.R. 1989. Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Neptune, New Jersey : T.F.H. Publications 240 pp., 63 pls. [78] (as C. eyresii, in part)

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 394 pp. [132]

Crowley, L.E.L.M. & Ivantsoff, W. 1990. A review of species previously identified as Craterocephalus eyresii (Pisces: Atherinidae). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 112(2): 87-103 [98]

Crowley, L.E.L.M. & Ivantsoff, W. 1992. Redefinition of the freshwater fish genus Craterocephalus (Teleostei: Atherinidae) of Australia and New Guinea with an analysis of three species. Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwater 3(3): 273-287 [279]

Ivantsoff, W. 1978. Taxonomic and systematic review of the Australian fish species of the family Atherinidae with references to related species of the Old World. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney 701 pp. 118 figs. [245] (as C. eyresii, in part)

Ivantsoff, W. 1980. Family Atherinidae. pp. 132-137 in McDowall, R.M. (ed.). Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Sydney : A.H. & A.W. Reed 208 pp., figs, 32 pls. [134] (as Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum, in part)

Kuiter, R.H. 2013. Pictorial Guide to Victoria's Freshwater Fishes. Seaford, Victoria : Aquatic Photographics 178 pp. [96]

Larson, H.K. & Martin, K.C. 1990. Freshwater Fishes of the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences Handbook Series Number 1. Darwin : Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences 102 pp. 73 figs. [31] (as C. eyresii, in part)

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part I. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5: 1–144 [109] (and p. 110 as Craterocephalus fluviatilis, in part)

McDowall, R.M. (ed.) 1996. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Sydney : Reed Books 247 pp. [125]

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20: 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [101] (690, in part)

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89(1): 11-127 [39] (623, in part)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
21-Jul-2014 ATHERINIFORMES 14-Jul-2014 MODIFIED Dr Doug Hoese
20-Aug-2013 MODIFIED