Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


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Compiler and date details

15 February 2002


The Coreidae are a cosmopolitan family of coreoid bugs that are found in all major zoogeographic regions. The family comprises about 267 genera and 1884 species (Schuh & Slater 1995, Henry 2009). They are most diverse in the tropical regions of the world and are sometimes referred to as leaf-footed bugs, squash bugs or pod bugs. The Australian coreid fauna is composed of two subfamilies, 10 tribes, 46 genera and 92 species, of which 25 genera and 64 species are endemic.

Leach (1815) first recognised the coreids as a family-group. Alternative infrafamilial classifications have been proposed (Cassis & Gross 2002: Table 9). Stål (1867, 1872, 1873) first established an intrafamilial classification which has remained the foundation of most subsequent classifications. Miller (1954) erected the Agriopocorinae as a new subfamily for autapomorphic taxa restricted to Australia. Schaefer (with others) (1965–1983) in reviewing coreoid systematics recognised five subfamilies: Pseudophloeinae, Meropachyinae, Hydarinae and Coreinae (the latter defined as a paraphyletic group—Acantholybas group and remainder).

China & Miller (1959) indicated that some coreid tribes should be raised to subfamily. Kumar (1965) recognised the Agriopocorini and Colpurini as subfamilies. Ahmad (1970) raised four coreine tribes (Colpurini, Hydarini, Phyllomorphini and Procamptini) to subfamily rank based on Eastern Hemisphere taxa. Schuh & Slater (1995) recognised four subfamilies, accepting the Agriopocorini as a subfamily and giving tacit support to Ahmad's arrangement. Brailovsky & Cassis (1999a) relegated the Agriopocorini to a tribe of Coreinae because its diagnostic characters are found in the remainder of the nominotypical subfamily. In the Catalogue, we accept the following subfamilial classification: Coreinae, Pseudophloeinae and Meropachyinae. The latter subfamily is restricted to the Neotropical Region.

The tribal classification of the Coreinae is in a confused state. The tribal arrangements proposed by key workers are given in Table 9 (Stål 1873—18 tribes, Schaefer 1965—21, Schuh & Slater 1995—30 tribes). Schuh & Slater (1995) reported that only the Coreini and Hydarini are found in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. They also suggested that the monophyly of some tribes is questionable. Packauskas (1994) provided an intrafamilial classification of the coreid fauna of the Western Hemisphere and a key to these taxa; there is no modern equivalent for the Eastern Hemisphere. In the Catalogue, we have mostly accepted Schaefer's (1965) tribal classification of the Coreinae, aside from Acantholybas Breddin, which we place in the Colpurini. In Table 9, we list our tribal classification and recognise nine tribes from Australia.

Dolling (1986) recognised two tribes in the Pseudophloeinae, the nominotypical tribe and the Clavigrallini. This arrangement has been followed by all subsequent authors and is maintained in the Catalogue.

Since the work of Stål (1867–1873) there have been few notable bibliographic works concerning the Coreidae. Lethierry & Severin (1894) catalogued the world fauna. Regional catalogues include those of Froeschner (1981; Ecuador, 1988; Nearctic Region, 2000; Panama) and Dolling (2006; Palaearctic). Stonedahl & Dolling (1991) listed key taxonomic works. Gross (1963) revised the Micronesian fauna which has relevance to the Australian fauna. Moulet (1995) revised the Mediterranean fauna, and included descriptions, ecological notes and host associations.

The coreids of Australia are moderately diverse and are found in all States and territories. They are most diverse in the tropical and subtropical regions. Carver et al. (1991) reviewed the Australian fauna. Until recently, the Australian Coreidae were poorly understood and there were few synthetic works. Brailovsky and co-workers (1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a) have partially rectified this shortfall by producing revisionary work on the Acanthocorini, Agriopocorini, Colpurini, and Hydarini.

The Coreinae are represented in Australia by eight tribes (Acanthocorini, Amorbini, Anisoscelini, Colpurini, Dasynini, Gonocerini and Mictini) that are native to Australia, and 40 genera and 82 species. Species of Chelinideini were introduced into Australia from North America to control the prickly pear.

The Acanthocorini contains nine genera (Schuh & Slater 1995, Brailovsky 2007), distributed mostly in the Afrotropical and Oriental Regions (Stål 1873). Three species are found in coastal north Queensland. These include two species of Pomponatius Distant (Brailovsky & Monteith 1998) and the monotypic genus Turrana Distant.

The Agriopocorini is an endemic Australian tribe that is broadly distributed across temperate Australia. Brailovsky & Cassis (1999a) revised the fauna, recognising five genera and eight species. The greatest diversity of this group occurs in the south-western floristic province of Western Australia. Miller (1954) and Štys (1967) also provided contributions on their taxonomy and morphology.

The Amorbini comprises 10 genera (Schuh & Slater 1995; Brailovsky & Monteith 1998; Brailovsky & Cassis 1999b) and is restricted to the Australian Region. Nine genera and 25 species are recorded from Australia, of which eight genera and 20 species are endemic. The majority of species belong to the Eucalyptus-inhabiting genus Amorbus Dallas (14 species). Steinbauer (1995) in an unpublished part of a thesis revised the genus and suggested that further synonymy is required. Brailovsky & Monteith (1998) and Brailovsky & Cassis (1999b) described two new genera and four new species; Brailovsky (2001b) established a new monotypic genus, Mirabilamorbus Brailovsky.

The Anisoscelini (=Anisoscelidini, see Packauskas 1994 for justification of name emendation) is a mostly Western Hemisphere tribe composed of nine genera (Schuh & Slater 1995). The pest species, Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabricius), is found in all zoogeographic regions and is known in eastern Australia from New South Wales to the Torres Strait Islands. It is also known from Christmas Island. Osuna (1984) divided the genus Leptoglossus Guérin into five genera, transferring L. gonagra to Fabrictilis Osuna. Packauskas & Schaefer (2001) rejected these taxonomic decisions and proposed new synonymy for the genus. Their arrangement was followed by Cassis & Gross (2002).

The Chelinideini is a monogeneric tribe, native to the Neotropical Region (Schuh & Slater 1995). Three species of Chelinidea Uhler (C. canyona Hamlin, C. tabulata (Burmeister) and C. vittiger Uhler) were introduced into Australia to control prickly pear. These species were released at multiple sites in Queensland and New South Wales in the 1920s and later recaptured (Dodd 1940). The current status of these species is not known. Herring (1980) reviewed the systematics of this genus.

The Colpurini is broadly distributed in the Eastern Hemisphere, but most diverse in the Oriental Region. The Colpurini of Australia comprises 12 genera (8 endemic) and 21 species (15 endemic) and is primarily a tropical group, with 14 species found in Queensland. Brailovsky (1993) revised the Australian fauna and described four new genera and seven new species, as well as giving the first record of Acanthotyla Stål from Australia. Brailovsky & Barrera (1996) revised the Sciophyrus-complex and described a further two new species from Australia. Brailovsky (1996) and Steinbauer & Clarke (1996) revised Acantholybas Breddin (2 species). Dolling (1987) revised the genus Agathyrna Stål and recorded A. praecellens Stål from Australia. The most speciose genera are Grosshygia Brailovsky (6 species), Sciophyrella Brailovsky (3 species) and Weirhygia Brailovsky (Australian endemic with 4 species). Brailovsky (2001) described many of these taxa and provided a key to the colpurine species of Australia.

The Dasynini is a diverse Eastern Hemisphere tribe of 16 genera (Schuh & Slater 1995). The Australian fauna is composed of five genera and 10 species, of which three genera and five species are endemic. The tribe has had little modern taxonomic attention and the identity of some taxa is obscure. Brown (1958) revised the fruit-spotting-bugs, Amblypelta Stål, and reported three species from Australia. Donaldson (1983) also revised the Australian members of the genus. Brailovsky (2006) described two new species of Dasynus Burmeister from Australia.

The Gonocerini is found throughout the Eastern Hemisphere and is composed of seven genera. The group is represented in Australia by three genera (Cletomorpha Mayr and Cletus Stål) and eight species (five endemic), three of them recently have been described by Brailovsky (2007). Blöte (1935) gave distributional details for these taxa, and Zheng & Chen (1998) gave a revision and cladistic analysis of the Chinese species of Cletus, suggesting that the genus has a Gondwanan origin.

The Hydarini is an Eastern Hemisphere taxon comprising eight genera (Schuh & Slater 1995). Brailovsky (1994) revised the Oriental fauna and recognised seven genera and four species. Subsequently, Brailovsky (1997) recorded the tribe from Australia for the first time, describing a new species, Hydarella weiri Brailovsky, from tropical Northern Territory. He suggested that this species is closely related to a species from the Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia).

The Mictini is the most diverse tribe of coreines in the Eastern Hemisphere (O'Shea & Schaefer 1980) and contains 48 genera (Schuh & Slater 1995). The tribe is represented in Australia by three genera (Mictis Leach, Pternistria Stål and Canungrantmictis Brailovsky) and six species, among which Mictis caja Stål, M. difficilis Brailovsky & Barrera Canungrantmictis morindana Brailovsky are endemic to Australia. Flanagan (1994) reviewed the distribution of Mictis profana (Fabricius), which is found in all Australian States and territories, except Tasmania.

The Pseudophloeinae, a circumtropical subfamily, are mostly found in the Afrotropical and Oriental Regions. The subfamily comprises 28 genera and 166 species (Dolling 1978, 1986; Schuh & Slater 1995). Only the Clavigrallini is found in Australia. Dolling (1978) revised the Clavigrallini, reporting four species from Australia: Clavigralloides acantharis (Fabricius) and C. spinosus Dolling, and Gralliclava australiensis Dolling and G. insularia Dolling. These species are confined in Australia to tropical Queensland and Northern Territory. Both of the aforementioned species of Clavigralloides Dolling also occur extralimitally, in Melanesia or Melanesia and the Oriental Region.

The biology of the Coreidae was summarised by Schuh & Slater (1995) and Mitchell (2000). Mitchell reported that most species are phytophagous, although occasional coprophagy is known (Steinbauer 1996). Mitchell also provided detailed information about the bionomics of important pest species, including the Australian species, Amblypelta lutescens Distant, A. nitida (Stål), Leptoglossus gonagra, Amorbus obscuricornis (Westwood), Gelonus tasmanicus (Le Guillou) and Mictis profana (Fabricius). Globally, coreids cause significant loss of grain legumes, cucurbit crops, and soft fruits and nuts. They are known to feed on plant vessels as well as reproductive parts (Kumar 1966).

Schaefer & Mitchell (1983) listed the known host plants (all subclasses of angiosperms) of the Coreidae, providing host records for over 200 coreid species. Many of the pest species are polyphagous and some higher taxa show a pattern of association (e.g. Mictini with Fabaceae). Australian coreids are known from a broad range of hosts and feed on lower angiosperms, monocots and eudicots. They are most common on rosid (Fabaceae, Mimosaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Myrtaceae and Rutaceae) and asterid (Solanaceae) eudicotyledonous angiosperms.

Amorbus is one of the few Heteropteran taxa that has successfully exploited Eucalyptus. Steinbauer et al. (2002) have analysed the host plants and biogeography of Amorbus, and found that species endemism of the bugs and their hosts are correlated. Species of Amorbus are known to feed on apical shoots causing tip-wilting (Kumar 1966; Mitchell 2000). Steinbauer and co-workers (1995, 1997a, 1997b, 1998, 1999) have published extensively on the biology of Amorbus obscuricornis and Gelonus tasmanicus. Steinbauer et al. (1998) established that the larvae of A. obscuricornis prefer coppiced plants. Brailovsky & Monteith (1998) described the biology of Kurrajongia Brailovsky & Monteith. The two species of this genus feed on subspecies of Brachychiton populneus (Schott & Endl) and exhibit aggregative behaviour.

The biology of the Agriopocorinae is not well known. Agriopocoris species have been collected on the ground and on Acacia species (Brailovsky & Cassis 1999a). Kumar (1966) reported that they feed on the sap of a variety of plants in the laboratory and did not regard them as granivores or fructivores. However, one of us [GC] has found them on the ground in association with fallen seeds. The enigmatic species Tylocryptus egenus Horváth, feeds on the foliage of Allocasuarina species (Casuarinaceae) and its cylindrical-shaped body resembles the needle-like leaves of its hosts.

Kumar (1966) reviewed the biology of species of Amorbus, Mictis, Aulacosternum Dallas, Pachycolpura Breddin and Agriopocoris Miller. He described the life stages, feeding and egg-laying behaviour, and host associations. Naumann & Steinbauer (2001) reviewed the egg parasitoids of coreoids.



Coreids are generally medium-sized to very large bugs, and vary considerably in body form, ranging from ovoid to parallel-sided in shape. Many species are robust. The head is diagnostic for the family, with the bucculae extended beyond the antennifers. The external efferent system of the metathoracic glands has a small, sometimes raised peritreme. The hemelytra contain a subcostal vein and the membrane has numerous veins. The legs are relatively thick, often with the metafemora incrassate and sometimes with the tibiae flattened. The abdomen has the eighth and ninth paratergites separated from the tergites. The abdominal venter contains two trichobothria on sterna II and three on sterna III to VII. The abdominal spiracles are ventral. The ovipositor is plate-like. (Dolling 1991; Schaefer 1965; Slater 1982; Schuh & Slater 1995)


General References

Ahmad, I. 1970. Some aspects of the female genitalia of Hygia Uhler 1861 (Coreidae: Colpurinae) and their bearing in classification. Pakistan Journal of Science 2(2): 235-243

Blöte, H.C. 1935. Catalogue of the Coreidae in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. Part II. Coreinae, first part. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 18: 181-227

Brailovsky, H. 1993. A revision of the tribe Colpurini from Australia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera-Coreidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 34(1): 35-60

Brailovsky, H. 1994. Revision of the tribe Hydarini in the Oriental region (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Coreidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 24: 383-390

Brailovsky, H. 1996. On the genus Acantholybas Breddin (Insecta: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Colpurini), with description of one new species from Java. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 65(4): 393-399

Brailovsky, H. 1997. First record of the tribe Hydarini in Australia with the description of a new species of Hydarella Bergroth (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 36: 225-228

Brailovsky, H. 2001. A further contribution to the Australian systematics of the tribe Colpurini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 77: 79-89

Brailovsky, H. 2001. A new genus and species of Amorbini from Australia (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae), with a key to the known genera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 109(2): 206-213

Brailovsky, H. 2006. Two new species of Dasynus Burmeister (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Dasynini) from Australia. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 75(1): 73-81

Brailovsky, H. 2007. A revision of the tribe Gonocerini from Australia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae). Zootaxa 1530: 1-18

Brailovsky, H. & Barrera, E. 1996. Revisión del complejo Sciophyrus (Hemiptera: Coreidae: Colpurini). Folia Entomologica Mexicana 96: 15-106

Brailovsky, H. & Cassis, G. 1999a. Revision of the tribe Agriopocorini (Hemiptera: Coreidae: Coreinae). The Canadian Entomologist 131: 293-321

Brailovsky, H. & Cassis, G. 1999b. New genus and new species of Amorbini (Heteroptera: Coreidae) from Australia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101(1): 69-74

Brailovsky, H. & Monteith, G.B. 1998. A new genus of Amorbini (Heteroptera: Coreidae) from Australia, with two new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 42(2): 379-385

Brown, E.S. 1958. Revision of the genus Amblypelta Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 49: 509-541 pl. xviii

Carver, M., Gross, G.F. & Woodward, T.E. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects, etc.) [with contributions by Cassis, G., Evans, J.W., Fletcher, M.J., Hill, L., Lansbury, I., Malipatil, M.B., Monteith, G.B., Moulds, M.S., Polhemus, J.T., Slater, J.A., Štys, P., Taylor, K.L., Weir, T.A. & Williams, D.J.]. pp. 429-509 in CSIRO (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press Vol. 1 xiii 542 pp.

Cassis, G. & Gross, G.F. 2002. Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Pentatomomorpha). in Houston, W.W.K. & Wells, A. Zoological Catalogue of Australia Vol. 27.3B. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing, Australia. xiv 737 pp.

China, W.E. & Miller, N.C.E. 1959. Check-list and keys to the families and subfamilies of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 8: 1-45

Dodd, A.P. 1940. The Biological Campaign Against Prickly-pear. Brisbane : A.H. Tucker, Government Printer ii 177 pp. 1 pl. 1 map.

Dolling, W.R. 1978. A revision of the Oriental pod bugs of the tribe Clavigrallini (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 36: 281-321

Dolling, W.R. 1986. The tribe Pseudophloeini (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in the Old World tropics with a discussion on the distribution of the Pseudophloeninae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 53(3): 151-212

Dolling, W.R. 1987. A mimetic coreid bug and its relatives (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Journal of Natural History 21: 1259-1271

Dolling, W.R. 1991. The Hemiptera. Oxford : Oxford University Press ix 274 pp.

Dolling, W.R. 2006. Coreidae. pp. i-xiv, 43-101 in Aukema B. & Reiger Ch. (Eds.). Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Amsterdam : Netherlands Entomological Society Vol. 5 pp. i-xiii, 1-550.

Donaldson, J.F. 1983. The Australian species of Amblypelta Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 22: 47-52

Flanagan, G.J. 1994. The Australian distribution of Mictis profana (F.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and its life cycle on Mimosa pigra L. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 33: 111-114

Froeschner, R.C. 1981. Heteroptera or true bugs of Ecuador: a partial catalog. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 1981(322): iv 1-147

Froeschner, R.C. 1988. Coreidae. pp. 69-92 in Henry, T.J. & Froeschner, R.C. (eds). Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. Leiden : E.J. Brill xix 958 pp.

Froeschner, R.C. 2000. True Bugs (Heteroptera) of Panama: A synoptic catalog as a contribution to the study of Panamanian biodiversity. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 62: ii 1-393

Gross, G.F. 1963. Insects of Micronesia. Coreidae (Alydini by J.C. Schaffner), Neididae, and Nabidae. Insects of Micronesia 7: 357-390

Herring, J.L. 1980. A review of the cactus bug of the genus Chelinidea with the description of a new species (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 82(2): 237-251

Kumar, R. 1965. Aspects of the morphology of Coreoidea and their value in its higher classification. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 76: 27-91

Kumar, R. 1966. Studies on the biology, immature stages, and relative growth of some Australian bugs of the superfamily Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 895-991

Leach, W.E. 1815. Hemiptera. p. 123 in, Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Vol. 9 Edinburgh : John Murray Baldwin & Cradocle.

Lethierry, L. & Severin, G. 1894. Catalogue Général des Hémiptères. Tome II. Hétéroptères Coreidae, Berytidae, Lygaeidae, Pyrrhocoridae. Bruxelles : F. Hayez 277 pp.

Miller, N.C.E. 1954. A new sub-family and new genera and species of Australian Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 78: 233-240

Mitchell, P.L. 2000. Leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae). pp. 337-403 in Schaefer, C.W. & Panizzi, A.R. (eds). Heteroptera of Economic Importance. Boca Raton : CRC Press 828 pp.

Moulet, P. 1995. Hémiptères Coreoidea (Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Alydidae), Pyrrhocoridae, Stenocephalidae, Euro-Méditerranéens. Faune de France 81: v 1-336

Naumann, I.D. & Steinbauer, M.J. 2001. Egg parasitoids of Australian Coreidae (Hemiptera). Australian Journal of Entomology 40: 9-16

O'Shea, R. & Schaefer, C.W. 1980. A generic revision of the Asian and Australian Mictini (Heteroptera: Coreidae). Oriental Insects 14: 221-251

Osuna, E.A. 1984. Monografía de la tribu Anisoscelidini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera Coreidae). 1. Revisión genérica. Boletín de Entomologia Venezolana NS 3(5–8): 77-145

Packauskas, R.J. 1994. Key to the subfamilies and tribes of the New World Coreidae (Hemiptera), with a checklist of published keys to genera and species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96(1): 44-53

Packauskas, R.J. & Schaefer, C.W. 2001. Clarification of some taxonomic problems in Anisoscelini and Leptoscelini (Hemiptera: Coreidae: Coreinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103: 249-256

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Schaefer, C.W. 1968. The morphology and higher classification of the Coreoidea (Hemiptera-Heteroptera): Part IV. The Acanthocephala–group and the position of Stenoscelidea Westwood (Coreidae). Occasional Papers of the University of Connecticut (Biological Sciences) 1: 153-199

Schaefer, C.W. 1982. The genital capsule of the Hydarinae (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 2: 1-6

Schaefer, C.W. & Mitchell, P.L. 1983. Food plants of the Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 76: 591-615

Schuh, R.T. & Slater, J.A. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Ithaca : Cornell University Press xii 336 pp.

Slater, J.A. 1982. Hemiptera. pp. 417-447 in Parker, S.P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York : McGraw Hill Book Co.

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Steinbauer, M.J. 1995. The biogeography and host plant utilisation of eucalypt feeding Coreidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Ph.D. thesis. University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania. 1-326 pp.

Steinbauer, M.J. 1996. Notes on extra-phytophagous food sources of Gelonus tasmanicus (Le Guillou) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Dindymus versicolor (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae). Australian Entomological Magazine 23(4): 121-124

Steinbauer, M.J. 1997. Seasonal phenology and development biology of Amorbus obscuricornis (Westwood) and Gelonus tasmanicus (Le Guillou) (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 45(1): 49-63

Steinbauer, M.J. 1997. The incidence and relative abundance of Amorbus obscuricornis and Gelonus tasmanicus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in southern Tasmania and their performance on selected Eucalyptus species. Australian Journal of Zoology 45(6): 631-649

Steinbauer, M.J. 1998. Seasonal fluctuations in bodyweight, lipid content and the starvation-longevity of Amorbus obscuricornis (Westwood) and Gelonus tasmanicus (Le Guillou) (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 37: 90-96

Steinbauer, M.J. 1999. The population ecology of Amorbus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae) species in Australia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 91: 175-182

Steinbauer, M.J., Clarke, A.R., Paterson, S.C. 1998. Changes in eucalypt architecture and the foraging behaviour and development of Amorbus obscuricornis (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 88: 641-651

Steinbauer, M.J., Taylor, G.S. & Madden, J.L. 1997. Comparison of damage to Eucalyptus caused by Amorbus obscuricornis and Gelonus tasmanicus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 82: 175-180

Steinbauer, M.J., Yonow, T., Reid, I.A. & Cant, R. 2002. Ecological biogeography of species of Gelonus, Acantholybas and Amorbus in Australia. Austral Ecology 27: 1-25

Steinbauer, M.J. & Clarke, A.R. 1996. Revision of the genus Acantholybas Breddin (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89(4): 519-525

Steinbauer, M.J. & Davies, N.W. 1995. Defensive secretions of Amorbus obscuricornis (Westwood), A. rubiginosus (Guérin-Méneville) and Gelonus tasmanicus (Le Guillou) (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 34: 75-78

Stonedahl, G.M. & Dolling, W.R. 1991. Heteroptera identification: a reference guide, with special emphasis on economic groups. Journal of Natural History 25: 1027-1066

Štys, P. 1967. On the morphology and taxonomy of Agriopocorinae (Heteroptera, Coreidae). Acta Societatis Entomologicae Cechosloveniae 61: 25-38

Zheng, L.-Y. & Chen. C. 1998. A study of phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Chinese species of Cletus Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 23: 189-198


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
15-Aug-2012 15-Aug-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)