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24 April 2015 - Douglass F. Hoese & Dianne J. Bray


The species of this order are characterised by the presence of a bony suborbital stay. Although the order has generally been considered monophyletic, Imamura & Yabe (2002) proposed that the scorpaeniforms be divided into two (distantly related) monophyletic groups and suggested placing the two groups as suborders of the Perciformes. Until that study is fully evaluated we retain the order as a single group. The classification within the group has varied considerably. Washington et al. (1984) discussed relationships and Nelson (1994) recognised 24 families in seven suborders and, subsequently, assigned 25 families to seven suborders (Nelson 2006). Ishida (1994) discussed relationships within the suborder Scorpaenoidei and elevated a number of subfamilies to familial level. Nelson (2006) discussed the complexity of the group and summarised the various studies.

The main differences in the various classifications relate to the suborder Scorpaenoidei and, in particular, to the group traditionally recognised as the Family Scorpaenidae. Nelson (1994) divided the family into 11 subfamilies and, subsequently, into nine subfamilies (Nelson 2006). Poss (1999) generally followed the classification of Nelson (1994) and provided a discussion on the difficulties of defining the various groups. Here we generally follow the classification of Ishida (1994). Mandrytsa (2001) also discussed relationships. Kawahara et al. (2008) proposed that the Dactylopteryidae belong with the Gasterosteiformes.

The suborders are not used here because of difficulties in defining the monophyly of the Scorpaenoidei. Hiro Motomura, Bill Eschmeyer, Les Knapp and Stuart Poss kindly provided valuable information about the species in this order.


General References

Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. 2008. Order Scorpaeniformes. pp. 486-525 in Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast. Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. [486]

Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. & Allen, G.R. 2006. Fishes. In, Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 35. Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3, 2178 pp. [862]

Imamura, H. & Yabe, M. 2002. Demise of the Scorpaeniformes (Actinopterygii: Percomorpha): an alternative phylogenetic hypothesis. Bulletin of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University 53(3): 107-128

Ishida, M. 1994. Phylogeny of the suborder Scorpaenoidei (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes). Bulletin of Nansei National Fisheries Research Institute 27: 1-112

Kawahara, R., Miya, M., Mabuchi, K., Lavoue, S., Inoue, J.G., Takashi, P., Kawaguchi, A. & Nishida, M. 2008. Interrelationships of the 11 gasterosteiform families (sticklebacks, pipefishes, and their relatives): A new perspective based on mitogenome sequences from 75 higher teleosts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(1): 224–236

Mandrytsa, S.A. 2001. Lateral Line System and Classification of Scorpaenoid Fishes (Scorpeaniformes: Scorpaenidei). Perm : Perm State Univ. Press pp. 1-393.

Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York : John Wiley & Sons 600 pp.

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.

Poss, S.G. 1999. Families Scorpaenidae, Caracanthidae, Aploactinidae. pp. 2291-2358 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes. Rome : FAO Vol. 4 pp. 2069-2790.

Washington, B.B., Eschmeyer, W.N. & Howe, K.M. 1984. Scorpaeniformes: relationships. pp. 438-447 figs 240-241 in Moser, H.G. et al. (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Special Publication 1: 1-760


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
06-May-2015 SCORPAENIFORMES 27-Apr-2015 MODIFIED Dr Dianne Bray (NMV) Dr Doug Hoese (AM) Dr Matthew Lockett (AM)
12-Feb-2010 (import)