Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

<I>Epinephelus hexagonatus</I>, Queensland

Epinephelus hexagonatus, Queensland


Regional Maps

External Links

Subfamily Epinephelinae


Compiler and date details

9 March 2012 - Douglass F. Hoese, Dianne J. Bray, Jennifer E. Gates & Matthew M. Lockett

December 2006 - Douglass F. Hoese, Dianne J. Bray & Jennifer E. Gates


Members of the Epinephelinae are found worldwide in tropical and warm temperate regions. The subfamily includes over 190 species in 30 genera (Nelson 1994, 2006). Currently, 91 species in 21 genera are known from Australia. The subfamily is divided into five tribes, with all but the monotypic Niphonini found in Australia. The classification and relationships are discussed in Johnson (1983, 1988), Kendall (1984), Baldwin et al. (1991), Baldwin & Johnson (1993) and Craig & Hastings (2007). Craig et al. (2011) have separated the Epinephelinae, as treated here as a distinct family the Epinephelidae, but excluding Niphon. The groups treated here as tribes were elevated to subfamily status.

Munro (1961) treated 53 species from Australia; only 36 of those species names are recognised here. Recent studies have shown that many previously used names are incorrect (Randall & Heemstra 1991). For example, the estuary cods (Epinephelus coioides and E. suillus) have frequently been misidentified as Epinephelus tauvina, even though the identity of E. tauvina was determined several years ago (Randall 1964). Records of some species from Australia are questionable and thus are not included here. For example, Cephalopholis nigripinnis has been recorded from the Northern Territory, but no specimens were located to document the Australian records. Similarly, records of Epinephelus fario were probably based on E. malabaricus or E. corallicola. Epinephelus fario was inadequately described and is a species of uncertain identity.

Bauchot et al. (1984) recorded types of species at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris and provided information on synonymies. Randall (1987) provided a preliminary key to Indo-Pacific species. Randall & Heemstra (1991) and Heemstra & Randall (1993) treated members of the tribe Epinephelini from around the world.


General References

Baldwin, C.C., Johnson, G.D. & Colin, P.L. 1991. Larvae of Diploprion bifasciatum, Belonoperca chabanaudi and Grammistes sexlineatus (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) with a comparison of known larvae of other epinephelines. Bulletin of Marine Science 48(1): 67-93

Baldwin, C.C. & Johnson, G.D. 1993. Phylogeny of the Epinephelinae (Teleostei: Serranidae). Bulletin of Marine Science 52(1): 240-283

Bauchot, J.E., Desoutter, M. & Randall, J.E. 1984. Catalogue critique des types de Poissons du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (suite) (Famille des Serranidae). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [published 1907-1971] 4e supplément 6(3): 3-82

Craig, M.T., Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y.J. & Heemstra, P.C. 2011. Groupers of the World: a Field and Market Guide. Grahamstown, South Africa : NISC Ltd 356 pp., Appendix 47 pp.

Craig, M.T. & Hastings, P.A. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with a revised classification of the Epinephelini. Ichthyological Research 54(1): 1-17

Heemstra, P.C. & Randall, J.E. 1993. Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 Vol. 16. Rome: FAO. pp. 1-382

Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. & Allen, G.R. 2006. Fishes. In, Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 35. Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3, 2178 pp. [998]

Johnson, G.D. 1983. Niphon spinosus a primitive epinepheline serranid, with comments on the monophyly and interrelationships of the Serranidae. Copeia 1983(3): 777-787 figs 1-9

Johnson, G.D. 1988. Niphon spinosus, a primitive epinepheline serranid: corroborative evidence from the larvae. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 35(1): 7-18

Kendall, A.W. Jr 1984. Serranidae: development and relationships. pp. 499-510 in Moser, H.G. et al. (eds). Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Special Publication 1: 1-760

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20: 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961]

Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York : John Wiley & Sons 600 pp.

Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 601 pp.

Randall, J.E. 1964. Notes on the groupers of Tahiti, with descriptions of a new serranid fish genus. Pacific Science 18(3): 281-296 figs 1-12

Randall, J.E. 1987. A preliminary synopsis of the groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae) of the Indo-Pacific region. pp. 89-188 in Polovina, J.J. & Ralston, S. (eds). Tropical Snappers and Groupers: Biology and Fisheries Management. Boulder : Westview Press Inc. 659 pp.

Randall, J.E. & Heemstra, P.C. 1991. Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 20: 1-332


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
03-Dec-2012 03-Dec-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)