Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Species Xenostrobus pulex (Lamarck, 1819)

Little Black Horse Mussel

Compiler and date details

May 2017 - Burghardt, I.

December 2010 - Peter U. Middelfart, Winston F. Ponder & Des Beechey, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia



New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Also in New Zealand

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39)

Ecological Descriptors


Extra Ecological Information

Habitat: sand, rocky shore, common on open rocky shores of exposed coasts; substrate: wood, rocks, living in sheets on rocks in areas where sand and rocks meet and on jetty piles above mid-tide level.


General References

Allan, J.K. 1950. Australian shells: with related animals living in the sea, in freshwater and on the land. Melbourne : Georgian House xix, 470 pp., 45 pls, 112 text figs. [293, fig. 3]

Beu, A.G. 2004. Marine Mollusca of oxygen isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 1: Revised generic positions and recognition of warm-water and cool-water migrants. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 34(2): 111-265 [149]

Colgan, D.J. & da Costa, P. 2013. Invasive and non-invasive lineages in Xenostrobus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Molluscan Research 33(issue 4): 272-280

Cotton, B.C. 1961. South Australian Mollusca. Pelecypoda. Adelaide : W.L. Hawes, Government Printer 363 pp. [Date published Oct: Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia Series] [122-123, fig. 109] (in part, also X. securis vide Wilson, 1966)

Gatliff, J.H. & Gabriel, C.J. 1917. Additions to and alterations in the Catalogue of the marine shells of Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria n.s. 30(1): 21–31 [31]

Hedley, C. 1913. Studies of Australian Mollusca. Part XI. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 38: 258–339 [265]

Hedley, C. 1915. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part XII. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 39: 695–755, pls 77–85 [Date published 26 Feb.] [698]

Hedley, C. 1916. A preliminary index of the Mollusca of Western Australia. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Western Australia 1: 152-226 [159] (as M. nitens)

Huber, M. 2010. Compendium of Bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world's marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim, Germany : ConchBooks 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM.

Iredale, T. & McMichael, D.F. 1962. A reference list of the marine Mollusca of New South Wales. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 11: 1–109

Lamprell, K. & Healy, J. 1998. Bivalves of Australia. Leiden : Backhuys Publishers Vol. 2 288 pp. [86, fig. 191]

Laseron, C. 1956. New South Wales Mussels - a taxonomic review of the family Mytilidae from the Peronian Zoogeographical Province. The Australian Zoologist 12(3): 263-283, figs 1-53 [272, figs 36-38] (in part, also X. securis vide Wilson, 1966)

Ludbrook, N.H. 1984. Quaternary molluscs of South Australia. South Australian Department of Mines and Energy, Handbook 9: 1-327 [152, figs 36c, d, pl. 3g]

Macpherson, J.H. & Gabriel, C.J. 1962. Marine molluscs of Victoria. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press & National Museum of Victoria 475 pp. [289, fig. 327] (in part, also X. securis vide Wilson, 1966)

Marshall, B. & Bouchet, P. 2015. Xenostrobus pulex (Lamarck, 1819). In: MolluscaBase (2017). World Register of Marine Species. (Accessed on 2017-06-06)

May, W.L. 1921. A Checklist of the Mollusca of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania : Government Printer 114 pp. [12]

May, W.L. 1923. An illustrated index of Tasmanian shells: with 47 plates and 1052 species. Hobart : Government Printer 100 pp. [Date published 31 July 1923] [pl. 4, fig. 11]

McMichael, D.F. 1960. Shells of the Australian sea-shore. Brisbane : Jacaranda Press 127 pp., 287 figs. [Date published December] [30, fig. 35]

Michaelsen, W. & Hartmayer, R. (eds) 1930. Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Jena : Gustav Fischer Vol. 5. [589] (in part, also X. securis vide Wilson, 1966)

Phillips, D.A.B., Handreck, C., Bock, P.E., Burn, R., Smith, B.J. & Staples, D.A. (eds) 1984. Coastal Invertebrates of Victoria: an atlas of selected species. Melbourne : Marine Research Group of Victoria & Museum of Victoria 168 pp. [83, text fig.]

Pritchard, G.B. & Gatliff, J.H. 1904. Catalogue of the Marine Shells of Victoria. Part VIII. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria n.s. 17(1): 220-266 [249] (as M. ater, contains synonymy (in part) and older bibliography)

Singleton, F.A. 1937. Lady Julia Percy Island. 1935 Expedition. Mollusca. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 49: 387-396 [388]

Wells, F.E. & Bryce, C.W. 1986. Seashells of Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 207 pp. [152, fig. 560]

Wilson, B.R. 1967. A new generic name for three Recent and one fossil species of Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in southern Australasia, with redescriptions of the species. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 37: 279-295 [288-289, figs 2c, 3c]

Wilson, B.R. & Hodgkin, E.P. 1967. A comparative account of the reproductive cycles of five species of marine mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in the vicinity of Fremantle, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 18(2): 175-204 [177] (distribution, ecology)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
22-Aug-2023 BIVALVIA 22-Aug-2023 MOVED Mr Des Beechey Ingo Burghardt Ms Anouk Mututantri (AM)
22-Sep-2010 22-Sep-2010 MOVED
27-May-2013 22-Sep-2010 MODIFIED
11-Aug-2010 MODIFIED