Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps


Compiler and date details

15 February 2002


The Rhyparochromidae or seed bugs (sensu Henry 1997) are a cosmopolitan family of lygaeoid bugs. Comprising two subfamilies, 14 tribes, 372 genera and 1,850 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995; Henry 2009), the group is the most diverse pentatomomorphan family aside from the Pentatomidae. The Australian rhyparochromid fauna includes both subfamilies, 11 tribes, 75 genera and 190 species.

The Rhyparochromidae (= Megalonotinae) were first established as a suprageneric group by Amyot & Serville (1843). Summaries of the history of the classification of the Rhyparochromidae are given by Scudder (1957), Slater & Sweet (1961), Slater (1964a) and Slater & O'Donnell (1995).

Stål (1872, 1874—as Myodochina) established the classification of the rhyparochromids, recognising six tribal divisions: Boesaria, Cleradaria, Gonianotaria, Lethaearia, Myodocharia and Rhyparochromaria. His classification was primarily based on abdominal trichobothria. Breddin (1907) revised this classification based on the position of the abdominal spiracles. The comparative morphological works of Ashlock (1957; male genitalia), Slater & Hurlbutt (1957; hind wing) and Putschkov (1958; larvae) provided a major impetus for reclassification of the rhyparochromids.

Scudder (1957) reclassified the group, recognising four tribes: Drymini, Lethaeini, Stygnocorini (including Cleradini) and Rhyparochromini (including Gonianotina and Plociomerina. His classification was based on the relative position of the abdominal trichobothria and spiracles. Putschkov (1958) emphasised the value of the larval Y-shaped suture and highlighted problems in previous classifications. Slater & Sweet (1961) incorporated information from these characters systems in a reappraisal of the tribal classification, recognising the following tribes: Beosini, Cleradini, Drymini, Gonianotini, Lethaeini, Megalonotini, Myodochini and Plinthisini.

Sweet (1967) produced the landmark work on the tribal classification of the Rhyparochromidae. He recognised 14 tribes, including those of Slater & Sweet (1961) (aside from the polyphyletic Beosini), added two new tribes (Ozophorini and Udeocorini), accepted Ashlock's (1964) new tribes (Antillocorini and Targaremini), and resurrected the Phasmosomini, Stygnocorini and the nominotypical Rhyparochromini. Slater & Woodward (1982) added an additional tribe, the Lilliputicorini.

Henry (1997), in reclassifying the Lygaeoidea, established the Rhyparochromidae as a family, with two subfamilies. He elevated the plinthisines to subfamily ranking (also suggested by Schuh & Slater 1995) and recognised them as the sister-taxon to the remainder of the rhyparochromids (Rhyparochrominae sensu stricto). This classification is followed in this Catalogue.

The world fauna was catalogued by Slater (1964a) and Slater & O'Donnell (1995). Numerous regional taxonomic works exist that have general significance to rhyparochromid workers. Péricart's (1998a, 1998b) revision of the western Palaearctic fauna is the most comprehensive regional treatment. This work describes all life stages, ecology and. Other noteworthy regional works include: Kerzhner (1964; Palaearctic genera), Slater (1964b; South Africa) and Linnavuori (1978; Sudan). Scudder (1962a, 1962b, 1963, 1967, 1968, 1970a, 1970b, 1977, 1978, 1981) reviewed the status of type specimens of many rhyparochromid species.

Between 1950 and 1980 considerable work was produced on Australian Rhyparochromidae, primarily by Gross (1958, 1965), Malipatil (1977–1983), Scudder (1957–1981), Slater and co-workers (1964–1982), and Woodward and coworkers (1956–1988). Many of the suprageneric groups, such as the Plinthisinae, Cleradini, Lethaeini, Myodochini and Targaremini are described adequately. Generic endemicity is moderately high with 40% of the genera restricted to Australia—about three-quarters of the species are endemic. Slater (1975, 1976a, 1986) analysed the biogeography of the family and recognised circum-Antarctic and Indo-Pacific distribution patterns, as well as a distinct autochthonous component. Slater (1976b) and Malipatil (1979) described immature stages of several Australian rhyparochromids and Malipatil (1980) gave an account of chromosome variation in the males of numerous Australian species.

The Plinthisinae are a cosmopolitan subfamily comprising 3 genera and 111 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995). The greatest diversity occurs in the Palaearctic (55 species) and Afrotropical (40) Regions. Slater & Sweet (1977) revised the Australian fauna of Plinthisus Stephens, describing all the known species, and assigning them to subgenera (P. (Isioscytus) Horváth, P. (Locutius) Distant and P. (Nanoplinthisus) Wagner). The plinthisine fauna of Australia includes 15 species, all but one of which are endemic—Plinthisus (Locutius) woodwardi Slater & Sweet also occurs in New Zealand. The majority of species are endemic to either semi-arid temperate areas or northern Western Australia. A few species are broadly distributed across States and territories. Slater (1975) and Slater & Sweet (1977) reported that the Australian Plinthisinae are represented by two elements: a temperate Bassian clade of flightless species that are closely related to the South African plinthisines and a northern, more tropical element, that has affinities with the Oriental fauna.

The Rhyparochrominae of the world comprise 369 genera and 1824 species (Table 10). The subfamily is represented in Australia by 74 genera and 175 species, with about 40% of the genera and 75% of the species endemic. Slater (1986) analysed the zoogeography of the tribes. Eleven of the currently accepted rhyparochromids tribes are represented in Australia, with only the Gonianotini (Holarctic), Megalonotini (mostly Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Oriental Regions) and Phasmosomini (Palaearctic Region) not represented. The greatest diversity in Australia occurs in the following tribes: Cleradini, Drymini, Lethaeini, Myodochini, Rhyparochromini and Udeocorini.

The Antillocorini is cosmopolitan in distribution and comprises 24 genera and 91 species (Slater 1986; Slater & O'Donnell 1995). Ashlock (1964) first recognised the group at suprageneric level. It is most diverse in the Neotropical Region and represented by no more than five genera in all the other zoogeographic regions. In Australia, Antillocorini is represented by three genera and five species. Botocudo Kirkaldy is broadly distributed (not in the Palaearctic Region) and represented in Australia by an endemic species, B. ornatulus (Bergroth), known only from tropical central Queensland. Lethaeaster Breddin is found in Malesia and Melanesia, and represented in Australia by L. anthocoroides Breddin, which is found in tropical north Queensland, Indonesia and Malaysia. Tomocoris Woodward is represented by three species along the east coast of Australia, and is also found in the Cook Islands. Slater (1983) reviewed the Australian members of the tribe and Schuh & Slater (1995) questioned its monophyly.

The Cleradini is mostly Indo-Pacific in distribution and comprises 20 genera and more than 50 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995). The tribe is most diverse in Australia, there being 7 genera and 26 species, or about 40% of the world fauna; four of the genera and 23 species are endemic. Laticlerada Malipatil (5 species) and Paramahisa Malipatil (9) are the richest genera. Most species are found in the tropical regions of Queensland, although a few are broadly distributed across temperate Australia. Clerada apicornis Signoret, found in many parts of the world, is recorded from eastern Australia. Malipatil (1981) revised the Australian fauna and described many new taxa (4 genera and 16 species). Subsequently, Malipatil (1983) revised the world fauna and provided a cladistic analysis of the genera.

The Drymini is found primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere and is not indigenous in South America. The tribe comprises 56 genera and 280 species and is most diverse in the Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Oriental Regions (Slater 1986). Twelve genera and 19 species are present Australia, of which 5 genera and 16 species are endemic. The tribe is broadly distributed across Australia and the majority of species occur in Queensland (15 species). Three mainland species are also found in New Zealand (Grossander major (Gross), Paradrymus exilirostris Bergroth and Scolopostethus forticornis Gross), and Brentiscerus obscurus (Gross) occurs on Lord Howe Island. Gross (1965) described most Australian species. Slater (1975) discussed the zoogeography of the Drymini and hypothesised that drymines are adapted to shaded open woodlands and forest edges. Slater (1986) claimed that the distribution of the Australian Drymini is difficult to interpret because the paucity of knowledge of the Oriental fauna confounds biogeographic analysis.

The Lethaeini is a cosmopolitan tribe comprising 35 genera and 153 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995). The greatest diversity of taxa occurs in the tropical and subtropical parts of the Afrotropical, Oriental and Australian Regions (Slater 1986). The tribe is represented in Australia by 11 genera and 25 species, and most of the species and 7 genera are endemic. Slater (1975) reports that lethaeine distribution resembles that of the Plinthisinae, with south temperate (Coleocoris Gross, Carabocoris Gross, Exomyocara Slater & Woodward and Myocara Bergroth) and tropical (Neolethaeus Distant) components. The temperate component includes mostly flightless (coleopteroid) species with restricted distributions, particularly in Western Australia (four endemic species). Gross (1958) and Woodward (1962, 1968, 1980a, 1980b, 1981; Woodward & Malipatil 1977; Woodward & Slater 1962) described most of the Australian taxa. A number of new taxa are known to exist in Australian collections.

The Lilliputocorini is circumtropical in distribution and comprises the nominotypical genus, Lilliputicoris Slater and Woodward, and eight species (Slater 1986, Slater & O'Donnell 1995). In Australia, Lilliputicoris is represented by two species: L. punctatus (Woodward) is found in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea and L. terrareginae Slater & Woodward is restricted to tropical north Queensland.

The Myodochini is a cosmopolitan tribe of 73 genera and 322 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995). Aside from the nominotypical tribe, this is the most speciose rhyparochromine tribe. Myodochine diversity is greatest in the Western Hemisphere (Slater 1986). They are relatively depauperate in Australia numbering 12 genera and 27 species, of which two genera and 13 species are endemic. The tribe has an Indo-Pacific distribution pattern and the majority of genera and some species are broadly distributed in the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere. Nearly all the Australian species are found in tropical coastal Queensland; a south temperate component is lacking. Malipatil (1978) revised the myodochines of the Australian Region, describing eight new genera and 12 new species. Harrington (1980) revised the Myodochini of the world and proposed many new synonymies and new combinations. She also provided a cladistic and biogeographic analysis of genera and argued that the radiation of the tribe was post-Gondwanan.

The Ozophorini is a speciose tribe of 24 genera and 175 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995), which is most diverse in the Neotropical and Oriental Regions (Slater 1986; Chen & Ashlock 1987; Schuh & Slater 1995). Ozophorini is represented in Australia by two genera (Bedunia Stål and Ethaltomarus Scudder) and five species, three of which are endemic. Slater & Woodward (1974) described the Ethaltomarus species. Slater (1975) regarded the Ozophorini to be a recent addition to the Australian fauna.

The Rhyparochromini is the most diverse tribe of Rhyparochrominae and presently comprises 39 genera and 370 species. The group is found in all major zoogeographic regions aside from the Neotropical Region, but is most diverse in the Afrotropical, Palaearctic and Oriental Regions. The tribe is poorly represented in Australia, there being 7 genera and 30 species; all seven genera are found extralimitally but species endemicity is high (67%). Most genera are also found in Melanesia and the Oriental Region. The most diverse genera are Dieuches Dohrn (13 species), Elasmolomus Stål (5 species) and Stizocephalus Eyles (7 species). Many species are broadly distributed across continental Australia, and some of these are also found to the north of Australia. Stizocephalus has a predominantly south temperate distribution. The most significant works relevant to the Australian fauna are Gross & Scudder (1963), Eyles (1970, 1973) and Scudder (1975).

The Stygnocorini is a moderate-sized tribe of 16 genera and 73 species. It is absent from the Western Hemisphere and is most diverse in the Afrotropical and Palaearctic Regions. In Australia, the tribe is represented by an endemic species, Tasmanicola truganinae Slater & Sweet, which is broadly distributed from the Atherton Tableland to Tasmania. Slater (1986) argued that this species has affinities with taxa in montane South Africa and New Zealand.

The Targaremini is restricted to the Australian Region and comprises 23 genera and 57 species (Slater 1986; Slater & O'Donnell 1995). Centres of endemism of targaremines exist in eastern Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Slater 1986). In Australia the fauna is represented by six genera and nine species, with almost half of the genera and most of the species being endemic. Slater (1976a) reported that the Australian members of the tribe are associated with mesic forest (including Nothofagus forests) and woodland habitat. The majority of species are flightless and Malipatil (1977) and Slater (1986) have alternatively suggested dispersalist and vicariant explanations for their distribution. Genera are found jointly in Australia and New Caledonia (Hebrolethaeus Scudder and Lachnophoroides Distant) and Australia and New Zealand (Geratarma Malipatil). Woodward (1953, 1956, 1978, 1986) described the majority of the Australian species. The New Zealand Targaremini were revised by Eyles (1967) and Malipatil (1977).

The Udeocorini comprises 14 genera and more than 30 species (Slater & O'Donnell 1995) and is restricted to the Australian (Australia, New Zealand and Timor) and Neotropical Regions. Slater (1986) argued that udeocorines have a Gondwanan origin. The udeocorine fauna of Australia is composed of 10 genera and 24 species, and most of the taxa are endemic. Slater (1975) argued that, within Australia, the Udeocorini is an ancient dry-adapted group, that has a predominantly south temperate distribution. Udeocorines are also represented in tropical Australia and both Telocoris species also co-occur in Timor. Daerlac Signoret (6 species) and Euander Stål (4 species) are the most diverse genera. Gross (1962) revised the Australian fauna and described the majority of taxa. Slater et al. (2009) revised the Australian genus Laryngodus Herrich-Schaeffer, including the description of two new species.

The habitats and habits of rhyparochromids are relatively well known. Sweet (2000) summarised their biology and documented the few species of occasional economic importance. Other key references, particularly those concerned with feeding behaviour, include Eyles (1963, 1964) and Sweet (1960, 1964a, 1964b)). The majority of rhyparochomids are ground-dwelling seed-predators, feeding mostly on fallen mature seeds (Schuh & Slater 1995). The preponderance of wing polymorphism in epigaeic rhyparochromids is thought to be linked to permanency of habitat. Many species are flightless and wing-shortening is a common condition amongst members of the Plinthisinae, Lethaeini, Targaremini and Udeocorini (Slater 1975; Malipatil 1977).

The host associations of most species are unknown and the degree of host-specificity is poorly understood. Sweet (1960) established that many North American species can be reared on sunflower seeds. Numerous species have been collected in the 'seed-shadow' of plants. Slater (1975) reported a number of Australian rhyparochromids in association with the fallen seeds of plant species in heathland habitats (often Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Epacridaceae). He also indicated that species assemblages of rhyparochromids (Antillocorini, Drymini, Lethaeini, Ozophorini and Udeocorini) are sometimes associated with the same host plant.

Malipatil (1979) examined the biology of a number of Australian species of Myodochini, Rhyparochromini, Udeocorini and Lethaeini. He made observations on wing polymorphism, mimicry, predation and parasitism, host plants, feeding habits and ovipositional behaviour.

Members of the Cleradini are haematophagous, feeding on the blood of vertebrates (Harrington 1980; Malipatil 1983; Schuh & Slater 1995). They have been collected mostly from the nests of birds, marsupials and rodents (Sweet 1967, Harrington 1988, Malipatil 1981). In Australia, Laticlerada laticollis Horváth and L. monteithi Malipatil are known from the nests of possums (Bergroth 1914, Wilton-Smith 1978). The introduced species, Clerada apicocornis, is known to occasionally feed on human beings (Illingworth 1917) and is implicated in the transmission of Chagas' disease in South America (Malipatil 1981).

Aside from the Cleradini, rhyparochromids are remarkably homogeneous in their biology. Exceptions include some Australian myodochine and udeocorine species which are found 'up-on-plants' (Malipatil 1979). There are also reports of occasional arthropod-feeding by rhyparochromids (Slater & Carayon 1963) although no such records exist for Australia.



Rhyarochromids are small, dull insects, that are either brown or mottled with dark and pale contrasting markings. The head usually bears trichobothria. Ocelli are present. The antennae and labium are 4-segmented. The fore femora are often swollen and often armed on the ventral surface with strong spines. Most species have a fused curving suture between sterna IV and V, terminating at the trichobothrial furrow (not in Plinthisini). The male vesica has a helicoid process. (Sweet 1967; Schuh & Slater 1995; Henry 1995)


General References

Amyot, C.J.B. & Audinet-Serville, J.G. 1843. Histoire Naturelle des Insects. Hémiptères. Paris : Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Rue Hautefeuille 10 B13 676 pp.

Ashlock, P.D. 1957. An investigation of the taxonomic value of the phallus in the Lygaeidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 50: 407-426

Ashlock, P.D. 1964. Two new tribes of Rhyparochrominae: a re-evaluation of the Lethaeini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 57: 414-422

Bergroth, E. 1914. On an hemipterous insect from an Australian opossum's nest. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 38: 53-57

Breddin, G. 1907. Berytiden und Myodochiden von Ceylon aus der Sammelausbeute von Dr. W. Horn (Rhynch. Het.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1907: 34-47, 203-220

Chen, J.-X. & Ashlock, P.D. 1987. A revision of the genus Bryanellocoris with thirty-five new genus species from the Southwest Pacific (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Kansas University Science Bulletin 53: 393-435

Eyles, A.C. 1963. Life histories of some Rhyparochrominae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 15: 135-166

Eyles, A.C. 1964. Feeding habits of some Rhyparochrominae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) with particular reference to the value of natural foods. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 116: 89-114

Eyles, A.C. 1967. Two new genera and five new species of Targaremini from New Zealand, with a key to the genera of Targaremini (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Journal of Science 10: 407-423

Eyles, A.C. 1970. An endemic genus of Rhyparochromini (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 13: 500-504

Eyles, A.C. 1973. Monograph of the Genus Dieuches Dohrn (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Dunedin : The Author & Otago Daily Times Ltd 465 pp. map.

Gross, G.F. 1958. Australian beetle-mimicking bugs of the family Lygaeidae (Subfamily Rhyparochrominae: Tribe Lethaeini). Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) 13: 227-233

Gross, G.F. 1962. Aberrant Australian brachypterous myodochine bugs (Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae). Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) 14: 371-396 pls 14-16

Gross, G.F. 1965. A revision of the Australian and New Guinea Drymini (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) 15: 39-78 pls 3-7

Gross, G.F. & Scudder, G.G.E. 1963. The Australian Rhyparochromini (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) 14: 427-469 pls 19-24

Harrington, B.J. 1980. A generic level revision and cladistic analysis of the Myodochini of the World (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae, Rhyparochromidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 167(2): 45-116

Harrington, B.J. 1988. Comments on the blood-feeding tribe Cleradini (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) and description of a new genus and species with the legs modified for grasping. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81: 577-580

Henry, T.J. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of family groups within the infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the Lygaeoidea. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90(3): 275-301

Henry, T.J. 2009. Biodiversity of the Heteroptera. pp. 223–263 in Foottit, R.G. & Adler P.H. (eds). Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society. Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell.

Illingworth, J.F. 1917. Clerada apicicornis sucking blood (Hemip.). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 3: 274

Kerzhner, I.M. 1964. Order Hemiptera (Heteroptera). pp. 684-845 in Bei-Bienko, G.Y. (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the European USSR. Apterygota, Palaeoptera, Hemimetabola. Leningrad : Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR Vol. 1.

Linnavuori, R. 1978. Hemiptera of the Sudan, with remarks on some species of the adjacent countries 6. Aradidae, Meziridae, Aneuridae, Pyrrhocoridae, Stenocephalidae, Coreidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae, Lygaeidae. Acta Zoologica Fennica 153: 1-108

Malipatil, M.B. 1977. The Targaremini of New Zealand (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) a revision. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 4: 333-367

Malipatil, M.B. 1978. Revision of the Myodochini (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) of the Australian region. Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 56: 1-178

Malipatil, M.B. 1979. The biology of some Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of south-east Queensland. Australian Journal of Zoology 27: 231-249

Malipatil, M.B. 1980. Chromosome variation in the males of some Australian Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 27: 709-715

Malipatil, M.B. 1981. Revision of Australian Cleradini (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 29: 773-819

Malipatil, M.B. 1983. Revision of world Cleradini (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), with a cladistic analysis of relationships within the tribe. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 205-225

Péricart, J. 1998a. Hémiptères Lygaeidae Euro-Méditerranéens. Volume 2. Systématique: Seconde Partie. Oxycareninae, Bledionotinae, Rhyparochrominae (1). Faune de France 84B: I-III 1-453, 3 pls

Péricart, J. 1998b. Hémiptères Lygaeidae Euro-Méditerranéens. Volume 1. Généralités Systématique: Troisième Partie. Rhyparochrominae (2). Faune de France 84C: I-VI 1-487, pls 2

Putschkov, V.G. 1958. Larvae of Hemiptera-Heteroptera. I. Lygaeidae. Entomological Review. Washington 37: 332-351

Schuh, R.T. & Slater, J.A. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Ithaca : Cornell University Press xii 336 pp.

Scudder, G.G.E. 1957. The higher classification of the Rhyparochrominae (Hem., Lygaeidae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 93: 152-156

Scudder, G.G.E. 1962a. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). II. New genera for previously described species. The Canadian Entomologist 94: 981-989

Scudder, G.G.E. 1962b. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). I. New synonymy and generic changes. The Canadian Entomologist 94: 764-773

Scudder, G.G.E. 1963. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) III. New Rhyparochrominae from the Ethiopian region. The Canadian Entomologist 95: 1233-1253

Scudder, G.G.E. 1967. Rhyparochrominae types in the British Museum (Natural History) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomol. 20: 251-285

Scudder, G.G.E. 1968. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) VI. Further new genera for previously described species and some additional new species contained therein. Journal of Natural History 2: 577-592

Scudder, G.G.E. 1970a. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae) XI. The Horváth types. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici (Zoologica) 62: 197-206

Scudder, G.G.E. 1970b. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) X. Further systematic changes. The Canadian Entomologist 102: 98-104

Scudder, G.G.E. 1975. The genus Stizocephalus Eyles (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 14: 89-95

Scudder, G.G.E. 1977. The world Rhyparochrominae types (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). XIII. The Stål types. Entomologica Scandinavica 8: 29-35

Scudder, G.G.E. 1978. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) XV. New genera and species from the Indo-Pacific. Pacific Insects 18: 37-50

Scudder, G.G.E. 1981. The world Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). XVII. The genus Hebrolethaeus Scudder. The Canadian Entomologist 113: 295-302

Slater, J.A. 1964a. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the World. Storrs : University of Connecticut xviii 1668 pp.

Slater, J.A. 1964b. Hemiptera (Heteroptera): Lygaeidae. pp. 15-228 in Hanström, B., Brinck, P. & Rudebeck, G. (eds). South African Animal Life. Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951. Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell Vol. 10.

Slater, J.A. 1975. On the biology and zoogeography of Australian Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with special reference to the southwest fauna. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 14: 47-64

Slater, J.A. 1976a. The biology, distribution and taxonomy of some Lygaeidae of Southwest Australia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 15: 129-151

Slater, J.A. 1976b. The immature stages of Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of southwest Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 15: 101-126

Slater, J.A. 1983. On the systematic position of Letheaster with descriptions of a new genus and four new species of Antillocorini (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). International Journal of Entomology 25: 285-296

Slater, J.A. 1986. A synopsis of the zoogeography of the Rhyparochrominae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 94: 262-280

Slater, J.A., Schuh, R.T., Cassis, G., Johnson, C.A. & Pedraza-Peñalosa, P. 2009. Revision of Laryngodus Herrich-Schaeffer, an Allocasuarina feeder, with comments on its biology and the classification of the family (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae). Invertebrate Systematics 23(2): 111-133

Slater, J.A. & Carayon, J. 1963. Ethiopian Lygaeidae IV. A new predatory lygaeiad from Africa with a discussion of its biology and morphology (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A) A 38(1–3): 1-11

Slater, J.A. & Hurlbutt, H.W. 1957. A comparative study of the metathoracic wing in the family Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 59: 67-79

Slater, J.A. & O'Donnell, J.E. 1995. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the World (1960–1994). New York : New York Entomological Society xv 410 pp.

Slater, J.A. & Sweet, M.H. 1961. A contribution to the higher classification of the Megalonotinae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 54: 203-209

Slater, J.A. & Sweet, M.H. 1977. The genus Plinthisus Stephens in the Australian region (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 8: 109-152

Slater, J.A. & Woodward, T.E. 1974. A new genus and four new species of Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) from Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 13: 305-316

Slater, J.A. & Woodward, T.E. 1982. Lilliputocorini, a new tribe with six new species of Lilliputocoris, and a cladistic analysis of the Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae). American Museum Novitates No. 2754: 1-23

Stål, C. 1872. Enumeratio Hemipterorum. Bidrag till en förteckning öfver aller hittills kända Hemiptera, jemte systematiska meddelanden. 2. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm n.f. 10(4): 1-159

Stål, C. 1874. Enumeratio Hemipterorum. Bidrag till en förteckning öfver aller hittills kända Hemiptera, jemte systematiska meddelanden. 4. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm n.f. 12(1): 1-186

Sweet, M.H. 1960. The seed bugs: a contribution to the feeding habits of the Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 317-321

Sweet, M.H. 1964a. The biology and ecology of the Rhyparochrominae of New England (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) Part I. Entomologica Americana ns 43: 1-124

Sweet, M.H. 1964b. The biology and ecology of the Rhyparochrominae of New England (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) Part II. Entomologica Americana ns 44: 1-201

Sweet, M.H. 1967. The tribal classification of the Rhyparochrominae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60: 208-226

Sweet, M.H. 2000. Seed and Chinch Bugs. pp. 143-264 in Schaefer, C.W. & Panizzi, A.R. (eds). Heteroptera of Economic Importance. Boca Raton : CRC Press 828 pp.

Wilton-Smith, P.D. 1978. Two haematophagous species of Clerada (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) inhabiting the nest of the ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 17: 1-4

Woodward, T.E. 1953. New genera and species of Rhyparochrominae from New Zealand (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Records of the Canterbury Museum 6: 191-218

Woodward, T.E. 1956. A new species of Regatarma Woodward from Tasmania (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae). Papers of the Royal Society of Tasmania 90: 141-145

Woodward, T.E. 1962. A new genus of Rhyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) from Queensland. Journal of the Entomological Society of Queensland 1: 46-49

Woodward, T.E. 1968. A new species-pair of Neolethaeus Distant (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) from Northern Queensland and New Guinea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 80: 35-42

Woodward, T.E. 1978. Four new genera of Targaremini (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) from the Australian region. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 16: 429-437

Woodward, T.E. 1979a. The genus Austroxestus Woodward (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparchrominae). Australian Journal of Zoology 27: 813-824

Woodward, T.E. 1980b. The occurrence in Australia of Lamproceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) with the description of a new species. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 19: 101-105

Woodward, T.E. 1981. A new species of Austroxestus Woodward (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) from Arnhem Land. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 20: 173-176

Woodward, T.E. 1986. A new flightless montane species of Lachnophoroides Distant (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) from North Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 22: 189-195

Woodward, T.E. & Malipatil, M.B. 1977. A new genus and two new species of Lethaeini (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 16: 341-346

Woodward, T.E. & O'Donnell, J.E. 1988. The genus Aristaenetus Distant (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) with the description of a new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 25: 481-489

Woodward, T.E. & Slater, J.A. 1962. A new genus of Lethaeini common to Australia and South Africa with descriptions of two new species (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Queensland 1: 57-61


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
15-Aug-2012 15-Aug-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)