Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Genus Orthezia Bosc, 1784


ID Keys

(Williams, D.J. & Watson, G.W., 1990) [38] (female; genera of Ortheziidae of the South Pacific region); (Danzig, E.M., 1988) [695] (female; Ortheziidae genera of the Far East of the USSR); (Yang, P.L., 1982) [14] (female; Ortheziidae genera of China); (Kosztarab, M. & Kozár, F., 1978) [10] (female; genera of Ortheziidae); (Tereznikova, E.M., 1975) [111] (female; Ortheziidae genera of the Ukraine); (Danzig, E.M., 1971) [806] (female; key to genera of Ortheziidae); (Morrison, H., 1925) [102] (adult female; genera of Ortheziinae); (Green, E.E., 1922) [417] (adult female; genera of the subfamily Ortheziinae); (MacGillivray, A.D., 1921) [110] (adult female; as Douglasia; genera of Ortheziinae)



There are no truly indigenous species in the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Australasian Regions and the known species are predominantly Nearctic and Neotropical in distribution and only secondarily Palaearctic (see Morrison, H. 1925. Classification of scale insects of the subfamily Ortheziinae. Journal of Agricultural Research 30: 97–154).


Adult female external covering made up of definite and usually sharply segregated tufts of waxy secretions. Body is more or less distinctly oval, often broadly rounded posteriorly and tapering anteriorly. Larva body is oval, adult males elongate, slender (see Morrison, H. 1925. Classification of scale insects of the subfamily Ortheziinae. Journal of Agricultural Research 30: 97–154).


General References

Aguilera P.A. & Grana, S.F. 1976. Presencia de Orthezia olivicola Beingolea (Homoptera: Ortheziidae) en Chile. Idesia 4: 97-100 [97] (distribution, host)

Ahmad, R. & Ghani, M.A. 1972. Coccoidea and their natural enemy complexes in Pakistan. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Technical Bulletin 15: 59-104 [62] (distribution, host)

Amyot, C.J.B. 1847. Entomologie Française, Rhynchotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 5: 453-506 [489] (taxonomy)

Archangelskaya, A.D. 1937. The Coccidae of Middle Asia. Izdatelstvo Komiteta Nauk UZSSR, Tashkent [1937]: 158 pp. [23] (distribution)

Atkinson, E.T. 1886. Insect-pests belonging to the homopterous family Coccidae. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Natural History 55: 267-298 [295, 296] (description, taxonomy)

Barnes, H.F. 1930. Gall midges (Cecidomyidae) as enemies of the Tingidae, Psyllidae, Aleyrodidae and Coccidae. Bulletin of Entomological Research 5: 319-329 [322, 323] (biological control)

Beingolea, G.O. 1967. [Biological control of citrus pests in Peru.] Control biológico de las plagas de los cítricos en el Perú. Revista Peruana de Entomología 10: 67-81 [70, 73, 78] (biological control, distribution, taxonomy)

Beingolea, G.O. 1969. Notas sobre Orthezia pseudoinsignis Morrison n. sp. (Hom.: Ortheziidae), plaga de algunas plantas cultivadas y ornamentales en el Perú. Revista Peruana de Entomología 12: 96-118 [96] (distribution, host)

Blanchard, R. 1897. Sur les cochenilles du genre Orthezia Bosc, 1784. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 65: 678-683 [678-683] (taxonomy)

Borchsenius, N.S. 1937. Coccidae of Quarantine Value for U.S.S.R. and their Allied Species. Tbilisi, Georgia : Plant Quar. Sta. 272 pp. 72 pls. [19] (distribution)

Borchsenius, N.S. 1950. Mealybugs and Scale Insects of USSR (Coccoidea). Moscow : Akademii Nauk SSSR, Zoological Institute Vol. 32 250 pp. [26] (taxonomy)

Bosc d'Antic, L.A.G. 1784. [Description of Orthezia characias.] Description de l'Orthezia characias. Journal de Physique 1: 173 [173] (description, distribution)

Brain, C.K. 1915. The Coccidae of South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 5: 65-194 [89] (distribution)

Bremi, H. & Bremi-Wolf, J.J. 1847. Über die Schildläuse. Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 32: 41-45 [42] (distribution, taxonomy)

Brown, S.W. 1958. The chromosomes of an Orthezia species (Coccoidea–Homoptera). Cytologia 23: 429-434 [429-434] (distribution, host)

Browne, E.T. 1887. Notes on a species of Orthezia found in Kew Gardens. Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club 3: 169-172 [169-172] (taxonomy)

Brues, C.T., Melander, A.L. & Carpenter, F.M. 1954. Classification of insects. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 108: 1-917 [108, 161] (taxonomy)

Bruner, S.C., Scaramuzza, L.C. & Otero, A.R. 1945. Catálogo de los insectos que atacan a las plantas económicas de Cuba. Boletín Estación Experimental Agronómica, Santiago de Las Vegas, Cuba 63: 1-246 [71] (distribution, host)

Callan, E.M. 1940. The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyidae) of the West Indies. Revista de Entomologia. Rio de Janeiro 11: 730-758 [737, 744, 750, 752] (biological control, distribution)

Cardin, P. 1915. Informe dell Departamento de Patología Vegetal y Entomología. Tercer Informe Anual (Estación Experimental Agronómica, Republica de Cuba) [1915]: 217 pp. [107] (taxonomy)

Cassidy, T.P., Romney, V.E., Buchanan, W.D. & York, G.T. 1950. Damage to guayule by insects and mites with notes on control. Circular (United States Department of Agriculture) No. 842: 1-19 [2] (distribution, host)

Charlin, C.R. 1972. [Geographic distribution, host plants and new identifications of coccids in Chile.]. Revista Peruana del Entomología Agrícola 15: 215-218 [216] (distribution, host)

Chatterjee, N.C. & Bose, M. 1934. Entomological investigations on the spike disease of sandal. Coccinellidae. Supplementary data. Indian Forest Records 19: 1-10 [2, 7, 9] (biological control, distribution)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1893. [Note on Collection of Coccidae in Chile.]. Actes de la Société Scientifique du Chili 3: lxxvii-lxxix [LXXlX] (distribution)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1893. Coccidae, or scale insects. – II. Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica 40: 7-9 [8] (taxonomy)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1893. Two new Coccidae from New Mexico. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12: 403-406 [404] (taxonomy)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1894. Some observations on the distribution of Coccidae. American Naturalist 28: 1050-1054 [1053] (distribution)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1896. A check list of the Coccidae. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 4: 318-339 [327] (taxonomy)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1896. Coccidae or scale insects. – VIII. Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica 3: 8-10 [9] (description)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1897. Further notes on Coccidae from Brazil. Revista do Museu Paulista 2: 383-384 [383] (taxonomy)

Cockerell, T.D.A. 1899. Article VII. – First supplement to the check-list of the Coccidae. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 5: 389-398 [390] (taxonomy)

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Comstock, J.H. 1881. Report of the Entomologist. Part II. Report on scale insects. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture 1880–1881: 276-349 [349] (taxonomy)

Craw, A. 1896. Injurious insect pests found in the trees and plants from foreign countries. Biennial Report of the California State Board of Horticulture 5: 33-47 [41] (distribution, host)

Danks, H.V. 1981. Arctic arthropods. A review of systematics and ecology with particular reference to the North American fauna. Biol. Survey Project, Entomol. Soc. Canada. 608 pp. [429] (distribution)

Danzig, E.M. 1964. 5. Suborder Coccinea — Coccids or mealybugs and scale insects. Akademii Nauk SSSR Zoologicheskogo Instituta Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR 1: 616-654 [621] (distribution)

Danzig, E.M. 1971. Suborder Coccinea — coccids or mealybugs and scale insects. In, Bei-Bienko, G.Y. (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the European USSR. Vol. 1. Moscow : Acad. Sci. USSR, Zool. Inst. [806] (taxonomy)

Danzig, E.M. 1988. Suborder Coccinea. In, Lehr, P.A. (ed.). Keys to insects of the Far East of the USSR. Leningrad : Nauka. [695] (taxonomy)

Danzig, E.M. [Dantsig] 1980. Coccoids of the Far East USSR (Homoptera, Coccinea) with an analysis of the phylogeny of coccids of the world fauna. Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR 124: 1-343 [41] (taxonomy)

Dobzhansky, T. 1941. Beetles of the genus Hyperaspis inhabiting the United States. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 101(6): 1-94 [7] (distribution, host)

Douglas, J.W. 1881. On the species of the genus Orthezia. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 17: 172-176, 203-205 [176] (taxonomy)

Douglas, J.W. 1881. XVII. Observations on the species of the homopterous genus Orthezia with a description of a new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1881: 297-303 [297] (taxonomy)

Dufour, L. 1833. Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur les hémiptères. Mémoires de Institut de France, Académie des Sciences, Savans Etrang 4: 129-461 [108-109, 289] (taxonomy)

Dunham, O. 1954. Contribuicao para o conhecimento coccideos dos 'Insecta – Homoptera' da Bahia – I. Boletim do Instituto Biologico da Bahia 1: 63-74 [71, 72] (distribution, host)

Felt, E.P. 1914. List of zoophagous Itonididae. Journal of Economic Entomology 7: 458-459 [458] (biological control)

Felt, E.P. 1925. Key to gall midges (A resumé of studies I–VII, Itonidae). New York State Museum Bulletin No. 257: 239 pp. [30] (distribution, host)

Fernald, M.E. 1903. A catalogue of the Coccidae of the world. Bulletin of the Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural College 88: 1-360 [33] (catalogue, taxonomy)

Ferris, G.F. 1918. A note on the occurrence of abdominal spiracles in the Coccidae (Hemiptera). The Canadian Entomologist 50: 85-88 [85, 86, 88] (structure)

Ferris, G.F. 1919. A contribution to the knowledge of the Coccidae of Southwestern United States. Stanford University Publications, University Series 1919: 1-68 [14] (distribution, host)

Ferris, G.F. 1921. Notes on Coccidae – VII, VIII. (Hemiptera). The Canadian Entomologist 53: 57-61, 91-95 [59] (taxonomy)

Fleury, A.C. 1938. Report of insect and other animal and plant disease interceptions at California plant quarantine inspection points for 1937. Special Publication (Bureau of Plant Quarantine, State of California, Dept. of Agriculture) No. 161: 88 pp. [19, 74] (distribution, host)

Forel, A. 1928. In, The Social World of the Ants Compared with that of Man. London & New York : G.P. Putnam's Sons, Ltd 550 pp. [502] (taxonomy)

Frost, S.W. 1936. Ancient Artizans: the Wonders of the Insect World. Boston : The Van Press. [191, 195] (distribution)

Fulmek, L. 1943. Wirtsindex der Aleyrodiden- und Cocciden- Parasiten. Entomologische Beihefte aus Berlin-Dahlem 10: 1-100 [56] (biological control, distribution)

Ghesquière, J. 1946. Sur la redécouverte en Belgique d'Ortheziola signoretti (Hall.) (Hem. Ortheziidae). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Belgique d'Entomologie 82: 236-238 [235] (distribution)

Gillanders, A.T. 1916. Scale insects. Gardeners' Chronicle (London) 59: 243-244 [243] (taxonomy)

Girault, A.A. 1913. A systematic monograph of the chalcidoid hymenoptera of the subfamily Signiphorinae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 45: 189-233 [196] (biological control)

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Gómez-Menor Ortega, J. 1937. Cóccidos de España. Madrid : Instituto de Investigaciones Agronómicas, Estación 432 pp. [11-12, 383] (distribution, taxonomy)

Gonzalez, R.H. & Charlin, R. 1968. [Preliminary notes on the coccoid insects of Chile.] Nota preliminar sobre los insectos cóccoideos de Chile. Revista Chilena de Entomología 6: 109-113 [112] (distribution, host)

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Green, E.E. 1914. On the preparation of Coccidae for microscopical study. Annals of Applied Biology 1: 98-106 [104] (taxonomy)

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Howell, J.O. & Williams, M.L. 1976. An annotated key to the families of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of America, North of Mexico, based on characteristics of the adult female. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 69: 181-189 [184] (taxonomy)

Imhof, O.E. 1900. Multiocelläres geflügeltes Insekt. Biologisches Zentralblatt 20: 527 [527] (presenting alternative taxonomic arrangement considered Polyocellaria this to be a junior synonym of Orthezia, but treated it only as a nomen nudum and did not associate it with Orthezia, in fact, they point out that Imhof suggested a possible association with Arctorthezia.)

Imhof, O.E. 1900. Multiocelläres geflügeltes Insekt. Biologisches Zentralblatt 20: 527 [527] (taxonomy)

Jarvis, T.D. 1911. The Coccidae of Canada. Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 41: 64-77 [67] (taxonomy)

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Kervegant, D. 1932. [The coffee plant of Martinique.] Le caféier à la Martinique. Bulletin de l'Agence Générale dés Colonies 28: 1653-1686 [1676] (taxonomy)

Kirkaldy, G.W. 1906. On the nomenclature of the genera of the Hemiptera. The Entomologist 39: 253-257 [253] (taxonomy)

Kosztarab, M. 1996. Scale insects of Northeastern North America. Identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsburg, Virginia : Virginia Museum of Natural History 650 pp. [66-68] (description, host, taxonomy)

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Kosztarab, M. & Kozár, F. 1988. Scale Insects of Central Europe. Budapest : Akadémiai Kiado 456 pp. [41] (description, distribution, taxonomy)

Koteja, J. 1976. The salivary pump in the taxonomy of the Coccinea (Homoptera). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 21: 263-290 [268] (structure)

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Koteja, J. 1987. Palaeonewsteadie huaniae gen. et sp. n. (Homoptera, Coccinea, Ortheziidae) from Baltic amber. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 57: 235-240 [235] (taxonomy)

Koteja, J. 1987. Protorthezia aurea gen. et sp. n. (Homoptera, Coccinea, Oretheziidae) from Baltic amber. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 30: 241-249 [241] (taxonomy)

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Kumar, R., Lavigne, R.J., Lloyd, J.E. & Pfadt, R.E. 1976. Insects of the Central Plains Experiment Range, Pawnee National Grassland. Science Monograph 32: 1-74 [42] (distribution, host)

Kuwana, S.I. 1907. Coccidae of Japan, I. A synoptical list of Coccidae of Japan with descriptions of thirteen new species. Bulletin of the Imperial Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Japan 1: 177-212 [178] (distribution, host)

Kuwana, S.I. 1923. I. Descriptions and biology of new or little-known coccids from Japan. Bulletin of Agriculture and Commerce, Imperial Plant Quarantine Station, Yokohama 3: 1-67 [58] (description, distribution)

Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de M. 1816. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres. Paris : Verdière Vol. 3 586 pp. [462-463] (taxonomy)

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Lindinger, L. 1913. Afrikanische Schildläuse. V. Die Schildläuse Deutsche-ostafrikas. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 30: 59-95 [90] (distribution)

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Lindinger, L. 1937. Verzeichnis der Schildläus-Gattungen. (Homoptera - Coccoidea Handlirsch, 1903). Entomologisches Jahrbuch 46: 178-198 [179, 182-3, 191] (taxonomy)

Lindinger, L. 1943. Verzeichnis der Schildlaus-Gattungen, 1. Nachtrag. (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 28: 205-208, 217-224, 264-265 [223] (taxonomy)

Lloyd, F.E. 1911. Guayule, Parthenium argentatum Gray, a rubber-plant of the Chihuahuan Desert. Publication No. 139. Washington, D.C. : Carnegie Institution of Washington 213 pp. [42] (distribution, host)

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Myers, J.B. 1934. A drosophilid fly milking an Orthezia. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London ns 9(2): 61-62 [61] (distribution, host)

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Newstead, R. 1903. Monograph of the Coccidae of the British Isles. London : Ray Society Vol. 2 270 pp. [229] (taxonomy)

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Notz, P.A. 1974. [Identification of scale predators (Homoptera, Coccoidea) in Maracay and the surrounding area, Aragua State, Venezuela.] Reconocimiento de predatores de escamas (Homoptera, Coccoidea) en las zonas de Maracay y sus alrededores, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Revista Facultad de Agronomía. Maracay 8: 127-143 [134] (biological control)

Nur, U. 1980. Evolution of unusual chromosome systems in scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera). In, Blackman, R.L., Hewitt, G.M. & Ashburner, M. (eds). Insect Cytogenetics. London : Royal Entomological Society 278 pp. [103] (taxonomy)

Oguma, K. 1919. A new scale-insect, Xylococcus alni, on alder, with special reference to its metamorphosis and anatomy. Journal of the College of Agriculture, Hokkaido Imperial University 8: 77-109 [94, 96-97, 102] (taxonomy)

Pacora, J.F. 1979. Resultados de la investigación 1. Morfologia y biologia de Zagreus hexasticta (Cr.) (nueva combinación) Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), predator de Orthezia spp. y otros coccoideos en el Perú. Revista Peruana de Entomología 22: 101 [101] (biological control)

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Passon, M. 1908. [Determination of harmful insects received through the agricultural institute.] Instituto Agronomico. Boletim da Agricultura (São Paulo) 9 No. 6: 462-466 [824] (taxonomy)

Pollister, P.F. 1937. The structure and development of wax glands of Pseudococcus maritimus (Homoptera, Coccidae). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 80: 127-152 [142] (taxonomy)

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Ramachandra Rao, Y. 1920. Lantana insects in India: being the report on an inquiry into the efficiency of indigenous insect pests as a check on the spread of Lantana in India. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture India, Entomological Series 5: 239-302 [279] (distribution, host, taxonomy)

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Riley, C.V. & Howard, L.O. 1890. An Orthezia on Coleus. Insect Life (Washington DC) 3: 124-125 [124-125] (distribution, host)

Riley, C.V. & Howard, L.O. 1891. Scale insects in Trinidad. Insect Life (Washington DC) 4: 214 [214] (distribution, taxonomy)

Rogojanu, V. 1958. Contribution to the systematics and ecology of the family Ortheziidae (Coccidae) of Romania. Studii si Cercetari de Biologie. Bucuresti 9: 301-315 [302-304] (distribution, taxonomy)

Romney, V.A. 1946. Insects found on guayule in northern Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology 39: 670-671 [670-671] (distribution, host)

Sabrosky, C.W. 1957. A new genus and two new species of Chamaemyiidae (Diptera) feeding on Orthezia scale insects. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 52: 114-117 [114, 117] (biological control, distribution)

Salmón de los Heros, A. 1933. Tres insectos peligrosos para la fruticultura y jardinería: el Diaspis pentagena (pentagona?), el Icerya purchasi y los cóccidos del género Orthezia. Boletín de la Dirección de Agricultura Ganadería y Colonización. Peru 3: 467-481 [478] (taxonomy)

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Sefer, E. 1961. [Catalog of insects that attack cultivated plants in Amazonia.] Catálogo dos insetos que atacam as plantas cultivadas da Amazonia. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Agrónomico do Norte. Brazil No. 43: 23-53 [26, 27, 30, 36, 43,] (distribution, host)

Signoret, V. 1876. Essai sur les cochenilles ou gallinsectes (Homoptères – Coccides), 17e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 5 5: 374-394 [386-389] (description, distribution, host, taxonomy)

Silva d'Araujo, G.A., Goncalves, C.R., Galvao, G.M. & Goncalves, D.M. 1968. Quarto catalogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brasil. Parte II. Insetos, hospedeiros e inimigos naturais. Rio de Janeiro : Ministerio da Cultura Vol. 1 622 pp. [189] (distribution, host)

Silvestri, F. 1939. Compendio di Entomologia Applicata. Parte speciale. Portici : Tipografia Bellavista 974 pp. [630] (taxonomy)

Squire, F.A. 1933. Report of the Entomological Division for the year 1932. Divisional Reports of the Department of Agriculture (British Guiana) 1931: 133-140 [140] (distribution)

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Swezey, O.H. 1923. Records of introduction of beneficial insects into the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 5: 299-304 [300] (biological control)

Swezey, O.H. 1925. Biographical sketch of the work of Albert Koebele in Hawaii. Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Records 29: 364-368 [370] (taxonomy)

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Targioni Tozzetti, A. 1866. Come certe cocciniglie sieno cagione di alcune melate delle piante, e di alcune ruggini; e come la cocciniglia del fico dia in abbondanza una specie di cera. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Georgofili ns 13: 115-137; App. 138-146 [131-132, 146] (description, taxonomy)

Targioni Tozzetti, A. 1868. Introduzione alla seconda memoria per gli studi sulle cocciniglie, e catalogo dei generi e delle specie della famiglia dei coccidi. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali 11: 694-738 [722] (taxonomy)

Tereznikova, E.M. 1975. [Coccids. In, The Fauna of Ukraine.]. Akademii Nauk Ukrains'koi SSR Instituta Zoologicheskogo 20(18): 295 [27, 63, 111, 116] (description, distribution, taxonomy)

Urich, F.W. 1893. Notes on some insect pests of Trinidad, British West Indies. Insect Life (Washington DC) 6: 196-198 [196] (taxonomy)

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Wille, J. 1932. [Dr. J. Wille's trip to Huanuco to establish a colony of Novius cardinali.] Viaje del Dr. J. Wille a Huanuco, para establecer una colonia de Novius cardinali. Boletín de la Dirección de Agricultura Ganadería y Colonización. Peru 2: 158-160 [160] (taxonomy)

Wille, J.E. 1937. [Report of the biological control of olive maggots in the Valle del Yauca and various pests in the Valle de Chanchamayo.] Informes sobre el control biológico de las queresas del Olivo en el Valle de Yauca y de diversas plagas en el Valle de Chanchamayo. Lima, Peru : Instit. de Altos Estudios Agricolas del Peru 16 pp. [6] (taxonomy)

Wille, J.E. 1941. Tres informes de observaciones entomológicas en la costa en 1940. Informe (Ministerio de Fomento, Dirección de Agricultura y Ganadería, Lima, Peru) No. 53: 3-26 [17] (taxonomy)

Williams, D.J. 1991. Superfamily Coccoidea. pp. 457–464 in, Chapter 30. Hemiptera (Bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.). pp. 429-509 in CSIRO (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press Vol. 1 xiii 542 pp. [459] (distribution, taxonomy)

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Wilson, C.E. 1917. Some Florida scale-insects. Quarterly Bulletin of the Florida State Plant Board 2: 2-65 [65] (distribution, host)

Yang, P.L. 1982. [General classification of scale insects in China.]. Shanghai : Shanghai Science & Technology 425 pp. [14] (taxonomy)

Zimmerman, E.C. 1948. Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha. 268 in Zimmerman, E.C. (ed.). Insects of Hawaii. Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press Vol. 5 464 pp. [139] (distribution)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
21-Nov-2012 21-Nov-2012 MODIFIED
29-Jun-2012 29-Jun-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)