Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


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15 February 2002


The Largidae are a cosmopolitan family of pentatomomorphan bugs belonging to the superfamily Pyrrhocoroidea. The family comprises 13 genera and over 106 species (Schuh & Slater 1995, Henry 2009). The Largidae of Australia are represented by two genera and four species of the subfamily Physopeltinae.

Amyot & Serville (1843) first conceived of the Largidae as a family-group. Stål (1870) recognised the group as a subfamily of Pyrrhocoridae. This arrangement has been followed by a number of subsequent authors (Hussey 1929, Schmidt 1932, Stonedahl & Dolling 1991). China (1954) accorded the group family status and proposed closer relationships with the Lygaeidae than with the Pyrrhocoridae. Most subsequent authors have accepted the Largidae as a separate family (Slater 1982; Schuh 1986; Carver et al. 1991; Schuh & Slater 1995).

Hussey (1929) established a tribal classification for the Largidae (sensu pyrrhocorid subfamily): the Western Hemisphere Largini (= Euryophthalmini) and Eastern Hemisphere Physopeltini. Bliven (1973) described the myrmecomorphic Araphinae as a new subfamily of Alydidae, for three North American genera. Henry (1988) placed this subfamily in the Largidae, dividing the family into two subfamilies: Araphinae and Larginae. Schuh & Slater (1995) disputed the validity of the Araphinae as a subfamily. Schaefer (2000 reviewed aspects of largine systematics and gave the following classification: Larginae (Araphini and Largini) and Physopeltinae. This classification is followed in the Catalogue.

Lethierry & Severin (1894) and Hussey (1929) catalogued the world fauna. Regional catalogues include: Blöte (1931—various regions), Froeschner (1981; Ecuador, 2000; Panama), Henry (1988; Nearctic Region), Kerzhner (2001a; Palaearctic region) Taxonomic works of significance include: Ahmad & Abbas (1986; Indo-Pakistan region), Brailovsky (1991; Theraneis Spinola, 1996; Araphne Herrich-Schaeffer), Schmidt (1931; monograph), Brailovsky & Mayorga (1997; Stenomacra Stål), Schaefer & Ahmad (1999; Oriental Region), Stichel (1959; Palaearctic Region) and Torre-Bueno (1941; Nearctic Region).

The Australian fauna includes four species, belonging to the genera Delacampius Blöte (2 species) and Physopelta Amyot & Serville (2 species). Little has been published on the family in Australia. Stehlik (1965) described D. lateralis (Walker) from the Solomon Islands, and this species also occurs in northern Queensland. Malipatil & Kumar (1975) described the immature stages. Kumar (1968) discussed the adult morphology of Physopelta famelica Stål. Only Physopelta australis Blöte is endemic to Australia, and is widespread across tropical Queensland and the Northern Territory.

The biology of Largidae is very poorly known. All species are thought to be phytophagous, either feeding on seeds or plant juices. Like Pyrrhocoridae, largids are either ground-dwelling or associated with the vegetative parts of forbs, shrubs and trees. Mimicry and aposematism is common in the Largidae.



Largids are moderately-sized to large insects. They are often aposematically coloured. Ocelli are absent. The antennae and labium are 4-segmented. The antennae are inserted below the midheight of the eyes. The hemelytral membrane has basal cells with seven or eight distally radiating veins. Abdominal trichobothria are present on sterna III-VII, III-VI with three each, VII with two. The abdominal sternal sutures are sometimes fused or obscure. The conjunctiva of the male aedeagus lack appendages. The female ovipositor is laciniate. (Slater 1982; Schuh & Slater 1995)


General References

Ahmad, I. & Abbas, N. 1986. Pyrrhocoris group (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae: Pyrrhocorinae) with description of a new genus and a new species from Indo-Pakistan subcontinent and their relationships. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 18: 596-598

Amyot, C.J.B. & Audinet-Serville, J.G. 1843. Histoire Naturelle des Insects. Hémiptères. Paris : Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Rue Hautefeuille 10 B13 676 pp.

Bliven, B.P. 1973. A third paper of Hemiptera associated with Pyrrhocoridae. Occididental Entomologist 1: 123-133

Blöte, H.C. 1931. Catalogue of the Pyrrhocoridae in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 14: 97-136

Brailovsky, H. 1991. Four new species of the Neotropical species Theraneis Spinola (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 99(4): 630-636

Brailovsky, H. 1996. Especies nuevas del género Araphne (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae: Arhaphinae). Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional de Mexico 67(2): 309-318

Brailovsky, H. & Mayorga, C. 1997. An analysis of the genus Stenomacra Stål with description of four new species, and some taxonomic rearrangements (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 105(1–2): 1-14

Carver, M., Gross, G.F. & Woodward, T.E. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects, etc.) [with contributions by Cassis, G., Evans, J.W., Fletcher, M.J., Hill, L., Lansbury, I., Malipatil, M.B., Monteith, G.B., Moulds, M.S., Polhemus, J.T., Slater, J.A., Štys, P., Taylor, K.L., Weir, T.A. & Williams, D.J.]. pp. 429-509 in CSIRO (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press Vol. 1 xiii 542 pp.

China, W.E. 1954. Notes on the nomenclature of the Pyrrhocoridae (Hemiptera Heteroptera). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 90: 188-189

Froeschner, R.C. 1981. Heteroptera or true bugs of Ecuador: a partial catalog. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 1981(322): iv 1-147

Froeschner, R.C. 2000. True Bugs (Heteroptera) of Panama: A synoptic catalog as a contribution to the study of Panamanian biodiversity. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 62: ii 1-393

Henry, T.J. 1988. Largidae. pp. 159-165 in Henry, T.J. & Froeschner, R.C. (eds). Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. Leiden : E.J. Brill xix 958 pp.

Hussey, R.F. 1929. Pyrrhocoridae. Fascicle III. pp. 1–144 in, General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Northampton : Smith College.

Kerzhner, I.M. 2001. Family Largida Amyot & Serville, 1843. pp. 245–247 in Aukema, B. & Rieger, C. (Eds.). Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region Vol. 4, Pentatomomorpha I. Amsterdam : The Netherlands Entomological Society Vol. 4 i-xiii, 346 pp.

Kumar, R. 1968. Aspects of the morphology and relationships of the superfamilies Lygaeoidea, Piesmatoidea and Pyrrhocoroidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 103: 251-261

Lethierry, L. & Severin, G. 1894. Catalogue Général des Hémiptères. Tome II. Hétéroptères Coreidae, Berytidae, Lygaeidae, Pyrrhocoridae. Bruxelles : F. Hayez 277 pp.

Malipatil, M.B. & Kumar, R. 1975. Biology and immature stages of some Queensland Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 14: 113-128

Schaefer, C.W. 2000. Systematic notes on Larginae (Hemiptera: Largidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 108: 130-145

Schaefer, C.W. & Ahmad, I. 1999. A key to the genera of southeast Asian and Malesian Largidae (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoroidea). Amemboa 3: 2-5

Schmidt, E. 1931. Zur Kenntnis der Familie Pyrrhocoridae Fieber. (Hemiptera — Heteroptera). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 92: 1-51

Schmidt, E. 1932. Zur Kenntnis der Familie Pyrrhocoridae Fieber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Teil II. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 49: 236-281, 328

Schuh, R.T. 1986. The influence of cladistics on Heteropteran classification. Annual Review of Entomology 31: 67-93

Schuh, R.T. & Slater, J.A. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Ithaca : Cornell University Press xii 336 pp.

Slater, J.A. 1982. Hemiptera. pp. 417-447 in Parker, S.P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York : McGraw Hill Book Co.

Stål, C. 1870. Enumeratio Hemipterorum. Bidrag till en förteckning öfver aller hittills kända Hemiptera, jemte systematiska meddelanden. 1. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm n.f. 9(1): 1-232

Stehlik, J.L. 1965. Pyrrhocoridae and Largidae collected by E.S. Brown on Solomon Islands (Heteroptera). Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae (Brno) 50: 253-291 pls I-VIII

Stichel, W. 1959. Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Deutschen Wanzen. II. Europa (Hemiptera-Heteroptera Europae). Berlin-Hermsdorf : Verlag W. Stichel Vol. 4(8-12) pp. 225-384. [Pt 8, Pentatomomorpha Lygaeoidea Lygaeidae (7) pp. 225–256; Pt 9, Pentatomomorpha Lygaeiodea Lygaeidae (8) pp. 257–288; Pt 10, Pentatomomorpha Lygaeidae (9), Pyrrhocoridae Addenda, Corrigenda Supplementa Liste der paläarktischen Arten (1) pp. 289–320; Pt 11, Liste der paläarkstischen Arten (2. Fortsetzung) Pentatomomorpha Lygaeidae pp. 321–352; Pt 12, Pentatomomorpha Coreoidea Stenocephalidae Coreidae (Coreinae) pp. 353–384]

Stonedahl, G.M. & Dolling, W.R. 1991. Heteroptera identification: a reference guide, with special emphasis on economic groups. Journal of Natural History 25: 1027-1066

Torre-Bueno, J.D. de la 1941. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of America north of Mexico. Part II. Families Coreidae, Alydidae, Corizidae, Neididae, Pyrrhocoridae and Thaumastotheridae. Entomologica Americana New Series 21: 41-122


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
15-Aug-2012 15-Aug-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)