Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Family GEODIIDAE Gray, 1867

Compiler and date details

2010 - John N.A. Hooper, Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Felix Wiedenmayer (1994), Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Basel, Switzerland; updated by John N.A. Hooper (1999)


The recognition of the subfamilies Geodiinae and Erylinae follows Cardenas et al. (2010, 2011), but see also van Soest et al. (2018) for a comment on the taxonomic proposals of these two articles.



Thickly encrusting, massive to globular growth forms with a well-developed cortex. The cortex is made of two differentiated layers: the external layer (‘ectochrote’) is fleshy and collagenous ('collenchymatose') with one of the various specialized microscleres (euasters, spherules or microrhabds); the inner layer is filled with sterrasters. Euasters or microrhabds may be also present in the choanosome. Megascleres are regular, long shafted triaenes, and oxeas.


ID Keys

(1) Both inhalant and exhalant orifices are cribriporal -------------------------------------------------------------- Geodia
Inhalant, exhalant or both orifices are uniporal ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

(2) Both inhalant and exhalant orifices are uniporal ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
Inhalant orifices cribriporal, exhalant uniporal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

(3) Somal microscleres are euasters of different types --------------------------------------------------------------- Isops
Microrhabds among the somal microscleres ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Erylus

(4) Microstrongyles among the somal microscleres ------------------------------------------------------- Pachymatisma
The somal microsclere is an aster or aster-derived form -------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

(5) The somal microsclere is an euaster ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sidonops
The somal microsclere is a spherule --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Caminus


General References

Bergquist, P.R. 1978. Sponges. London : Hutchinson 268 pp. 12 pls 81 figs 15 tables.

Brien, P., Lévi, C., Sarà, M., Tuzet, O. & Vacelet, J. 1973. Spongiaires. pp. 1-716 485 figs in Grassé, P.P. (ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Paris : Masson et Cie Vol. 3(1).

Cárdenas, P., Rapp, H.T., Schander, C. & Tendal, O.S. 2010. Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of the Geodiidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Astrophorida) — combining phylogenetic and Linnaean classification. Zoologica Scripta 39: 89–106

Cárdenas, P., Xavier, J.R., Reveillaud, J., Schander, C. & Rapp, H.T. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) reveals an unexpected high level of spicule homoplasy. PLoS ONE (Public Library of Science) 6: e18318. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018318

Dendy, A. 1916. Report on the Homosclerophora and Astrotetraxonida collected by H.M.S. Sealark in the Indian Ocean. In Reports of the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905. Vol. 6. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 2nd Series Zoology 17: 225-271 pls 44-48

Hartman, W.D. 1982. Porifera. pp. 640-666 in Parker, S.P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York : McGraw-Hill Vol. 1.

Lendenfeld, R. von 1903. Tetraxonia. In Schulze, F.E. (ed.) Das Tierreich. Berlin : Friedländer Lf 19 168 pp. 44 figs.

Lendenfeld, R. von 1910. The sponges. 1. The Geodidae. 2. The Erylidae. In Reports on the scientific results of the Expedition to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, in charge of Alexander Agassiz by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer Albatross, 1904–1905, and of other expeditions of the Albatross, 1888–1904. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 41(1): 1-260 pls 1-48; (2): 261-324 pls 1-8

Sollas, W.J. 1888. Report on the Tetractinellida collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873–1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger 1873–1876, Zoology 25(63): clxvi 1-458 44 pls 1 map

Van Soest, R.W.M., Boury-Esnault, N., Hooper, J.N.A., Rützler, K., de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez, B., Hajdu, E., Pisera, A.B., Manconi, R., Schönberg, C., Klautau, M., Picton, B., Kelly, M., Vacelet, J., Dohrmann, M., Díaz, M.-C., Cárdenas, P., Carballo, J.L., Ríos, P. & Downey, R. 2018. World Porifera database. Geodiidae Gray, 1867. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2018-03-27.

Wilson, H.V. 1925. Silicious and horny sponges collected by the U.S. Fisheries steamer Albatross during the Philippine Expedition, 1907–10. In Contributions to the biology of the Philippine Archipelago and adjacent regions. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 100(2/4): i-vii 273-532 pls 37-52


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
29-Mar-2018 PORIFERA Grant, 1836 27-Mar-2018 MODIFIED Dr Kathryn Hall
29-Mar-2018 15-Dec-2011 MOVED
29-Mar-2018 13-Apr-2011 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)