Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

Calcarea: Leucosoleniidae

Calcarea: Leucosoleniidae


Regional Maps

Class CALCAREA Bowerbank, 1862

Compiler and date details

2012 - John N.A. Hooper, Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia(1994, updated 1999, 2004, 2012); Felix Wiedenmayer Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Basel, Switzerland (1994)


Marine Porifera in which the mineral skeleton is composed entirely of calcium carbonate. The skeleton is composed of free diactine, triactine, tetractine and/or polyactine spicules, to which can be added a solid basal calcitic skeleton with basal spicules either cemented together or completely embedded in an enveloping calcareous cement. The aquiferous system can be asconoid, syconoid, sylleibid or leuconoid. Members of the Calcarea are viviparous and their larvae are blastulae.


ID Keys

(1) Regular (equiangular and equiradiate) triactines and tetractines, choanocytes basinucleate with spherical nuclei------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Calcinea)--------2
Sagittal triactines & tetractines, choanocytes apinucleate-------------------(Calcaronea)---------3

(2) Skeleton composed exclusively of free spicules------------------------------------------------Clathrinida
Reinforcement of the skeleton composed of either spicule tracts, calcareous plates or a rigid nonspicular skeleton. Diapasons or modified diactines present and generally fasciculated------------------------------------------Murrayonida

(3) Skeleton composed exclusively of free spicules--------------------------------------------------------------4
Reinforcement of the skeleton consisting either of linked or cemented basal actines of tetractines, or of a rigid basal mass of calcite. Diapason spicules generally present. Aquiferous system leuconoid----------------------------------Lithonida

(4) Skeleton either composed exclusively of microdiactines or in which microdiactines constitute exclusively or predominantly a specific sector of the skeleton. Large or giant spicules frequently present in the cortical skeleton. Dagger-shaped small tetractines (pugioles) frequently the sole skeleton of the exhalant aquiferous system. Aquiferous system leuconoid------------------------------------------------------------------------Baerida
Free spicules diactines, sagittal triactines/tetractines. Aquiferous system asconoid, syconoid, sylleibid or leuconoid------------------------------------------------------------Leucosolenida


General References

Borojevic, R. 1979. Evolution des Spongiaires Calcarea. pp. 527–530. in Lévi, C. & Boury-Esnault, N. (eds) Biologie des Spongiaires/Sponge Biology. Colloques Int. Cent. Natl Rech. Scient. Vol. 291.

Borojevic, R., Boury-Esnault, N. & Vacelet, J. 1990. A revision of the supraspecific classification of the subclass Calcinea (Porifera, Class Calcarea). Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris [published 1895-1906] 4 12(A,2): 243-276

Borojevic, R. & Boury-Esnault, N. 1986. Une nouvelle voie d'évolution chez les éponges Calcinea: description des genres Burtonulla n.g. et Levinella n.g. Bulletin du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris [published 1895-1906] 4 8(A,3): 443-455

Borojevic, R. & Boury-Esnault, N. 1987. Revision of the genus Leucilla Haeckel, 1872, with a re-description of the type species Leucilla amphora Haeckel, 1872. pp. 29-40 in Jones, W.C. European contributions to the taxonomy of sponges. Publications of the Sherkin Island Marine Station 1

Burton, M. 1963. A Revision of the Classification of the Calcareous Sponges. London : British Museum pp. 1-693 figs 1-375.

Dohrmann, M., Voigt, O. & Wörheide, G. 2006. Non-monophyly of most supraspecific taxa of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) revealed by increased taxon sampling and partitioned Bayesian analysis of ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(3): 830-843

Hartman, W.D. 1982. Porifera. pp. 640-666 in Parker, S.P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York : McGraw-Hill Vol. 1.

Hooper, J.N.A., van Soest, R.W.M. & Pisera, A. 2011. Phylum Porifera Grant, 1826. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 13-18

Hooper, J.N.A. & Wiedenmayer, F. 1994. Porifera. pp. 1–620 in Wells, A. (ed.). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Melbourne : CSIRO Australia Vol. 12 xiii 624 pp. [Date published 21/Nov/1994]

Manuel, M. 2006. Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84: 225–241

Manuel, M., Borojevic, R., Boury-Esnault, N. & Vacelet, J. 2002. Class Calcarea Bowerbank, 1864. pp. 1103-1110 in Hooper, J.N.A. & Soest, R.W.M. Van (eds). Systema Porifera. A guide to the classification of sponges. New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers Vol. 2. [1103]

Reitner, J. 1992. "Coralline Spongien" Der Versuch einer phylogenetisch-taxonomischen Analyse. Berlin, Germany : Selbstverlag Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Freie Universitaat Berlin 352 pp.

Vacelet, J. 1979. Description et affinités d'une éponge Sphinctozoaire actuelle. (Description and affinities of a living sphinctozoid sponge). pp. 483–493 in Lévi, C. & Boury-Esnault, N. (eds) Biologie des Spongiaires/Sponge biology. Colloques Int. Cent. Natl Rech. Scient. Vol. 291.

Vacelet, J. 1981. Eponges hypercalcifiées ('Pharétronides', 'Sclérosponges') des cavités des récifs coralliens de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris [published 1907-1971] 4,A 3: 313-351

Vacelet, J. 1985. 1. Coralline sponges and the evolution of Porifera. pp. 1-13 in Conway-Morris, S., George, J.D., Gibson, R. & Platt, H.M. (eds). The Origin and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates. Systematics Association Special Vol. 28. Oxford : Clarendon Press.

Vacelet, J. 1991. Recent Calcarea with a reinforced skeleton ('Pharetronids'). pp. 252-265 in Reitner, J. & Keupp, H. (eds). Fossil and Recent Sponges. Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer-Verlag xviii 595 pp.

Vacelet, J., Cuif, J.-P., Gautret, P., Massot, M., Richer de Forges, B. & Zibrowius, H. 1992. Un Spongiaire Sphinctozoaire colonial apparenté aux constructeurs de récifs triasiques survivant dans le bathyal de Nouvelle Calédonie. Comptes Rendus (Hebdomadaires) des Séances de l'Academie des Sciences. Série D. Sciences Naturelles 314: 379-385

van Soest, R. 2011. Calcarea. In: Van Soest, R.W.M, Boury-Esnault, N., Hooper, J.N.A., Rützler, K, de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez de Glasby, B., Hajdu, E., Pisera, A.B., Manconi, R., Schoenberg, C., Janussen, D., Tabachnick, K.R., Klautau, M., Picton, B., Kelly, M., Vacelet, J. (2011) World Porifera database. Accessed through: Van Soest, R.W.M, Boury-Esnault, N., Hooper, J.N.A., Rützler, K, de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez de Glasby, B., Hajdu, E., Pisera, A.B., Manconi, R., Schoenberg, C., Janussen, D., Tabachnick, K.R., Klautau, M., Picton, B., Kelly, M., Vacelet, J. (2011) World Porifera database at on 2012-01-27. (checked on 2012-01-27.)

Van Soest, R.W.M., Boury-Esnault, N., Vacelet, J., Dohrmann, M., Erpenbeck, D., de Voogd, N.J., Santodomingo, N., Vanhoorne, B., Kelly, M. & Hooper, J.N.A. 2012. Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera). PLoS ONE (Public Library of Science) PONE-S-11-32233


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
29-Mar-2018 PORIFERA Grant, 1836 30-Jun-2017 MODIFIED Dr Kathryn Hall
29-Mar-2018 28-Feb-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)