Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Species Musculus (Modiolarca) cumingianus (Reeve, 1857)

Three-area Mussel

Compiler and date details

December 2010 - Peter U. Middelfart, Winston F. Ponder & Des Beechey, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia




New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria

Extra Distribution Information

Indo-west Pacific, southern Africa, Kermadecs

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Northern Shelf Province (25), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Ecological Descriptors


Extra Ecological Information

Usually embedded in tunicates


General References

Allan, J.K. 1950. Australian shells: with related animals living in the sea, in freshwater and on the land. Melbourne : Georgian House xix, 470 pp., 45 pls, 112 text figs. [295, fig. 3]

Cotton, B.C. 1964. South Australian Mollusca. Chitons. Adelaide : S.A. Govt. Printer 150 pp. [4, pl. 3, fig. 9]

Hedley, C. 1916. A preliminary index of the Mollusca of Western Australia. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Western Australia 1: 152-226 [159]

Hedley, C. 1918. A checklist of the marine fauna of New South Wales. Part 1. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 51: M1–M120 [M11]

Huber, M. 2010. Compendium of Bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world's marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim, Germany : ConchBooks 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM.

Iredale, T. 1924. Results from Roy Bell's molluscan collections. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 49(3): 179–279, pls 33–36 [179]

Iredale, T. 1936. Australian molluscan notes. No. 2. Records of the Australian Museum 19(5): 267-340, pls 20-24 [270, pl. 21, fig. 1]

Iredale, T. 1939. Mollusca. Part 1. British Museum (Natural History), London. Great Barrier Reef Expedition, 1928-29. Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-1929 5(6): 209-425, pls 1-75 [423]

Iredale, T. & McMichael, D.F. 1962. A reference list of the marine Mollusca of New South Wales. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 11: 1–109 [13]

Kilburn, R.N. & Rippey, E. 1982. Seashells of Southern Africa. Johannesburg : MacMillan South Africa Publishers 249 pp. [160]

Lamprell, K. & Healy, J. 1998. Bivalves of Australia. Leiden : Backhuys Publishers Vol. 2 288 pp. [88, fig. 199]

Lamy, E. 1937. Révision des Mytilidae vivantes du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Journal de Conchyliologie 81: 5-71, 99-132, 169-197 [24]

Laseron, C. 1956. New South Wales Mussels - a taxonomic review of the family Mytilidae from the Peronian Zoogeographical Province. The Australian Zoologist 12(3): 263-283, figs 1-53 [267, fig. 11] (aslo as M. ulmus (p. 268, fig. 12))

Macpherson, J.H. 1966. Port Phillip Survey 1957–1963. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne 27: 201–288 [230] (as Lanistina ulmus)

Macpherson, J.H. & Gabriel, C.J. 1962. Marine molluscs of Victoria. Melbourne : Melbourne University Press & National Museum of Victoria 475 pp. [291] (as Lanistina ulmus)

May, W.L. 1921. A Checklist of the Mollusca of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania : Government Printer 114 pp. [12]

May, W.L. 1923. An illustrated index of Tasmanian shells: with 47 plates and 1052 species. Hobart : Government Printer 100 pp. [Date published 31 July 1923] [pl. 4, fig. 14]

Odhner, N.H. 1917. Results of Dr E. Mjöbergs Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia. 1910–1913, pt XVII, Mollusca. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm 52(16): 1–115 pls 1–3 [Date published 19 Sept. 1917] [21]

Oliver, P.G. 1992. Bivalved Seashells of the Red Sea. Wiesbaden : Verlage Christa Hemmen 330 pp. [pl. 5, fig. 6 a-b, key fig. 14]

Satyamurti, S.T. 1956. Mollusca of Krusadai Is. II. Scaphopoda, Pelecypoda, and Cephalopoda. Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum, Natural History ns 1(no. 2, pt 7): 202 pp., 30 pls [36]

Smith, E.A. 1885. Report on the Lamellibranchiata collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger 1873–1876, Zoology 13(35): 1-341, 25 pls [278]

Steyn, D.G. & Lussi, M. 1998. Marine Shells of South Africa. Hartebeespoort, South Africa : Ekogilde Publishers 264 pp. [821]

Tate, R. 1887. A revision of the Recent lamellibranch and palliobranch Mollusca of South Australia. Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of South Australia 9: 76-111 [106]

Tate, R. 1897. Critical remarks on some Australian Mollusca. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 1897: 40-49 [49]

Tate, R. & May, W.L. 1901. A revised census of the marine Mollusca of Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 26(3): 344-471 [438]

Tenison-Woods, J.E. 1879. Census; with brief descriptions of the marine shells of Tasmania and the adjacent islands. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1877: 26-57 [Date published 14 Jun]

Wells, F.E. & Bryce, C.W. 1986. Seashells of Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 207 pp. [152, fig. 561]

Whitelegge, T. 1889. List of the Marine and Freshwater Invertebrate Fauna of Port Jackson and the Neighbourhood. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 23: 163-323 [244]

Zhenrui, W. & Zhongyan, Q. 1984. Study on Chinese species of the family Mytilidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Studia Marina Sinica 22: 198-242 [223] (synonymy, distribution)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
22-Aug-2023 BIVALVIA 22-Aug-2023 MOVED Mr Des Beechey Ingo Burghardt Ms Anouk Mututantri (AM)
01-Sep-2012 01-Sep-2012 MOVED
22-Sep-2010 22-Sep-2010 MOVED
20-Sep-2010 16-Sep-2010 MOVED
27-May-2013 16-Sep-2010 MODIFIED
11-Aug-2010 MODIFIED