Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Species Lunulicardia hemicardium (Linnaeus, 1758)

Half Heart Cockle, The Half Cockle

Compiler and date details

December 2010 - Peter U. Middelfart, Winston F. Ponder & Des Beechey, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia



Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Tropical Indo-West Pacific

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Timor Transition (1), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, intertidal, marine, mud-silt, sand.


General References

Allan, J.K. 1950. Australian shells: with related animals living in the sea, in freshwater and on the land. Melbourne : Georgian House xix, 470 pp., 45 pls, 112 text figs. [318, pl. 76, fig. 7] (as Hemicardium hemicardium)

Coleman, N. 1975. What Shell is That? Sydney : Lansdowne Press 298 pp. [15, pl. 12]

Cotton, B.C. 1964. Molluscs of Arnhem Land. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land 4 (Zoology): 9–43 [12, pl. 3, figs 19, 20] (as H. tumoriferum)

Dufo, M.H. 1840. Observations sur les Mollusques marins, terrestres et fluviatiles des iles Séchelles et des Amirantes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris 2 14, Zoologie: 45–80 (extrait), 166–221(suite) [217]

Huber, M. 2010. Compendium of Bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world's marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim, Germany : ConchBooks 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. [298] (as forma tumoriferum for Australia)

Hylleberg, J. 2004. Lexical approach to Cardiacea. Records of taxa. Illustrated and annotated records of living and fossil shells, with emphasis on the families Cardiidae and Lymnocardiidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Part 2: A-M. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 30: 355-644 [547-548]

Kirkendale, L. 2009. Their Day in the Sun: molecular phylogenetics and origin of photosymbiosis in the 'other' group of photosymbiotic marine bivalves (Cardiidae: Fraginae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 97: 448–465 (included in phylogeny)

Lamprell, K. & Whitehead, T. 1992. Bivalves of Australia. Bathurst, New South Wales : Crawford House Press Vol. 1 xiv 182 pp. [66, fig. 208]

Oliver, P.G. 1992. Bivalved Seashells of the Red Sea. Wiesbaden : Verlage Christa Hemmen 330 pp. [121] (pl.22)

Reeve, L.A. 1844. Monograph of the genus Cardium. pls 1-12, 13-22 in Reeve, L.A. (ed.). Conchologica Iconica. London : Reeve & Bentham Vol. 2. [pl. 7, fig. 38] (as C. hemicardium, pl. 12, fig. 64 as C. tumoriferum)

Rippingale, O.H. & McMichael, D.F. 1961. Queensland and Great Barrier Reef shells. Brisbane : Jacaranda Press 210 pp. [186, pl. 26, fig. 18] (as Hemicardium hemicardium)

ter Poorten, J.J. 2014. Lunulicardia hemicardium (Linnaeus, 1758). World Register of Marine Species. (Accessed on 2015-01-30)

Wells, F.E. & Bryce, C.W. 1986. Seashells of Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 207 pp. [166, fig. 609]

Wilson, B.R. & Stevenson, S.E. 1977. Cardiidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) of Western Australia. Western Australian Museum Special Publication 9: 1-114 [46, pl. 2, figs 1-5]


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
22-Aug-2023 BIVALVIA 22-Aug-2023 MOVED Mr Des Beechey Ingo Burghardt Ms Anouk Mututantri (AM)
22-Aug-2023 BIVALVIA 22-Aug-2023 MOVED Mr Des Beechey Ingo Burghardt Ms Anouk Mututantri (AM)
11-Aug-2014 11-Aug-2014 MOVED
11-Aug-2014 CARDIIDAE 14-Feb-2014 MODIFIED Dr Winston Ponder (AM) Mr Des Beechey (AM) Dr Peter Middelfart (AM)
21-Nov-2013 MODIFIED