Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Family HYRIIDAE Swainson, 1840

Compiler and date details

December 2010 - Peter U. Middelfart, Winston F. Ponder & Des Beechey, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia

April 2004 - Brian J. Smith, S. Reid & Winston F. Ponder, Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston, TAS and Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia

1992 - Brian J. Smith, Museum Victoria, Melbourne


The hyriids are freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Palaeoheterdonata, Unionoidea) found in Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and South America (Boss 1982). The family is characterised by the large-sized, oval to elongate, black to brown bivalve shells with a nacreous interior. Larvae are incubated in the gills and released as glochidia which parasitise fish. Some species are endemic to their particular catchments while others are widespread in their distribution.
The Australian species were revised by McMichael & Hiscock (1958) under the name Mutelidae, later corrected to Hyriidae by Parodiz & Bonetto (1963). Smith (1998) and Walker et al. (2001) have summarised the available information on the group in Australia. Related families include the Unionidae and the Margaritiferidae, the former including many endangered species, particulary in North America.


General References

Allan, J.K. 1950. Australian shells: with related animals living in the sea, in freshwater and on the land. Melbourne : Georgian House xix, 470 pp., 45 pls, 112 text figs. [398-399]

Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Wells, A. (eds) 1998. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing Vol. 5(Part A) pp. xvi, 1-563. [297-298]

Bieler, R., Carter, J.G. & Coan, E.V. 2010. Classiication of Bivalve Families. pp. 113-133 in Bouchet, P. & Rocroi, J.-P. Nomenclator of Bivalve Families; with a classiication of bivalve families by R. Bieler, J.G. Carter & E.V. Coan. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184 [123] (higher classification)

Boss, K.J. 1982. Mollusca. pp. 945-1166 in Parker, S.P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York : McGraw-Hill Book Company Vol. 1. [1125-1126]

Cotton, B.C. & Gabriel, C.J. 1932. Australian Unionidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria ns 44(2): 155-160 pl. 16 [Date published April] [155]

Graf, D.L., Jones, H., Geneva, A.J., Pfeiffer, J.M. & Klunzinger, M.W. 2015. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 85: 1-9

Hiscock, I.D. 1951. A note on the life-history of the Australian freshwater mussel, Hyridella australis Lam. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 74: 146-148

Hiscock, I.D. 1960. Supplementary data on freshwater mussels (Mollusca:Pelecypoda) of the Australian region. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 11: 123-126

Hocknull, S.A. 2000. Mesozoic freshwater and estuarine bivalves from Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 45(2): 405-426

Iredale, T. 1934. The freshwater mussels of Australia. The Australian Zoologist 8(1): 57-78 pls iii-vi

Iredale, T. 1943. Guide to the freshwater shells of New South Wales, Part I. Australian Naturalist 11: 85-95 [87-88]

Lamprell, K. & Healy, J. 1998. Bivalves of Australia. Leiden : Backhuys Publishers Vol. 2 288 pp. [138]

McMichael, D.F. 1967. Australian freshwater Mollusca and their probable evolutionary relationships: a summary of present knowledge. pp. 123-149 in Weatherley, A.H. (ed.). Australian Inland Waters and their Fauna: Eleven Studies. Canberra : A.N.U. Press. [123-125]

McMichael, D.F. & Hiscock, I.D. 1958. A monograph of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca : Pelecypoda) of the Australian region. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 372-508

Parodiz, J.J. & Bonetto, A.A. 1963. Taxonomy and zoogeographic relationships of the South American naiades (Pelecypoda : Unionacea and Mutelacea). Malacologia 1: 179-214

Smith, B.J. 1998. Family Hyriidae. pp. 297-298 in Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Wells, A. (eds). Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing Vol. 5(Part A) pp. xvi, 1-563.

Walker, K.F. 1981. Ecology of freshwater mussels in the River Murray. Australian Water Resources Council Technical Paper No. 63. 1-119 pp.

Walker, K.F., Byrne, M., Hickey, C.W. & Roper, D.S. 2001. Freshwater Mussels (Hyriidae) of Australasia. pp. 5-31 in Bauer, G. & W├Ąchtler, K. (eds). Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoida. Berlin, Germany : Springer-Verlag 394 pp.


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
23-Oct-2014 BIVALVIA 16-Oct-2014 MODIFIED ABRS
11-Aug-2014 11-Aug-2014 MOVED
16-Nov-2010 16-Nov-2010 MOVED
12-Feb-2010 (import)