Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps


Compiler and date details

Kevin L. Lamprell, Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia John M. Healy, Center for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia


The order Gadilida Starobogatov, 1974 (=Siphonodentalida Palmer, 1974) is distinguished from the Dentaliida by the vermiform foot often with a terminal disc, rachidian tooth of the radula either higher than wide or height equal to width, and by the generally smaller, polished, usually unsculptured shells (exceptions: strong ribs in Entalinidae; certain Gadilidae with striations) which often have contracted apertures (Palmer 1974; Boss 1982; Steiner 1992; Scarabino 1995; Lamprell & Healy 1998; Steiner & Palmer 1998). In addition, several features of internal anatomy separate the Gadilida from Dentaliida including body and captacular musculature, mantle and midgut gland morphology and nerve ganglia positioning (Steiner 1992).

Some 28 gadilidan species, principally from the family Gadilidae, have been recorded from the Australian region. Five Australian fossil species are known from the Miocene and Pliocene of South Australia and Victoria (Ludbrook 1956, 1959, 1960, 1984).

Superficially, the external shelly tubes of certain polychaete worms (for example Ditrupa) may resemble shells of the Gadilidae (see General Introduction and also ten Hove & Smith 1990).

Two suborders are recognised: Entalinimorpha, with one family, the Entalinidae, and Gadilinimorpha, with the families Gadilidae and Pulsellidae represented in Australia. The Entalinimorpha was erected by Steiner (1992) to accommodate all Gadilida with strongly ribbed shells which are polygonal or laterally compressed in cross section (i.e. the Entalinidae). Details of radular, pedal muscle and captacular morphology were also cited by Steiner as defining features of the suborder.

The Gadilinimorpha was introduced for those Gadilida which have smooth to polished shells lacking longitudinal sculpture save for occasional fine striae. Steiner (1992) pointed out features of the radula (rachidian tooth with one or more cusps, laterals 3, marginals keeled) and soft anatomy (musculature, presence of mucoid epithelium on the terminal disk of the foot) which further characterise the group.


General References

Boss, K.J. 1982. Mollusca. pp. 945-1166 in Parker, S.P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York : McGraw-Hill Book Company Vol. 1. [1165]

Lamprell, K.L. & Healy, J.M. 1998. A revision of the Scaphopoda from Australian waters (Mollusca). Records of the Australian Museum Suppl. 24: 1-189

Ludbrook, N.H. 1956. The molluscan fauna of the Pliocene strata underlying the Adelaide Plains. Part III — Scaphopoda, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda (Haliotidae to Tornidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 79: 1-36 pls 1-2

Ludbrook, N.H. 1959. Revision of the Tate molluscan types—Scaphopoda. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 82: 141-149 pls 1-2

Ludbrook, N.H. 1960. Scaphopoda. pp. I37-I41 in Moore, R.C. (ed.). Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part I. Mollusca 1. Boulder, Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas : Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press xxiii + 351 pp.

Ludbrook, N.H. 1984. Quaternary molluscs of South Australia. South Australian Department of Mines and Energy, Handbook 9: 1-327

Palmer, C.P. 1974. A supraspecific classification of the scaphopod Mollusca. Veliger 17: 115-123

Scarabino, V. 1995. Scaphopoda of the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, with description of 3 new genera and 42 new species. In Bouchet, P. (ed.) Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM. Vol 14. Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 167: 189–379.

Steiner, G. 1992. Phylogeny and classification of Scaphopoda. Journal of Molluscan Studies 58: 385-400

Steiner, G. & Palmer, C.P. 1998. Scaphopoda. pp. 431-450 in Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Wells, A. (eds). Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing Vol. 5(Part A) pp. xvi, 1-563.

ten Hove, H.A. & Smith, R.S. 1990. A re-description of Ditrupa gracillima Grube, 1878 (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) from the Indo-Pacific, with a discussion of the genus. Records of the Australian Museum 42: 101-118


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
23-Jun-2014 MODIFIED