Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory


Regional Maps

Species Fragum fragum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Saw-toothed Heart Cockle, The White Strawberry Cockle, White Half Cockle

Compiler and date details

December 2010 - Peter U. Middelfart, Winston F. Ponder & Des Beechey, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia



New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Indo-west Pacific

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Timor Transition (1), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, coral reef, intertidal, marine, sand, seagrass.

Extra Ecological Information

To 50 m; lagoons, shallowly buried in clean coral and coarse sands, also amoing seagrass


General References

Coleman, N. 1975. What Shell is That? Sydney : Lansdowne Press 298 pp. [183, pl. 520]

Hedley, C. 1899. The Mollusca of Funafuti. Part 2. Pelecypoda and Brachiopoda. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 3: 489-510 [504]

Huber, M. 2010. Compendium of Bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world's marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim, Germany : ConchBooks 901 pp., 1 CD-ROM. (on CD: line 9961)

Hylleberg, J. 2004. Lexical approach to Cardiacea. Records of taxa. Illustrated and annotated records of living and fossil shells, with emphasis on the families Cardiidae and Lymnocardiidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Part 2: A-M. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 30: 355-644 [521-522]

Kirkendale, L. 2009. Their Day in the Sun: molecular phylogenetics and origin of photosymbiosis in the 'other' group of photosymbiotic marine bivalves (Cardiidae: Fraginae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 97: 448–465 (used in phylogeny)

Lamprell, K. & Whitehead, T. 1992. Bivalves of Australia. Bathurst, New South Wales : Crawford House Press Vol. 1 xiv 182 pp. [66, fig. 205]

Maes, V.O. 1967. The littoral marine mollusks of Cocos-Keeling Islands (Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 119: 93–217 [160]

McMichael, D.F. 1960. Shells of the Australian sea-shore. Brisbane : Jacaranda Press 127 pp., 287 figs. [Date published December] [34, fig. 45]

Oliver, P.G. 1992. Bivalved Seashells of the Red Sea. Wiesbaden : Verlage Christa Hemmen 330 pp. [121]

Reeve, L.A. 1844. Monograph of the genus Cardium. pls 1-12, 13-22 in Reeve, L.A. (ed.). Conchologica Iconica. London : Reeve & Bentham Vol. 2. [pl. 4, fig. 23] (as C. fragum)

Richard, G. 1982. Bilan quantitatif et premieres donnees de production de Cardium fragum (Mollusca, Bivalvia) dans le Lagon de Anaa. Malacologia 1-2 22: 347-352 [351]

Rippingale, O.H. & McMichael, D.F. 1961. Queensland and Great Barrier Reef shells. Brisbane : Jacaranda Press 210 pp. [186, pl. 26. fig. 11]

Salvat, B. & Rives, C. 1975. Coquillages de Polynésie. Tahiti : Papéete Les editions du pacifique, 391 pp. [374, fig. 431]

Tantanasiriwong, R. 1979. A checklist of marine bivalves from Phuket (area). Phuket Marine Biological Center, Research Bulletin 27: 1-15 [9]

ter Poorten, J.J. 2014. Fragum fragum (Linnaeus, 1758). World Register of Marine Species. (Accessed on 2015-01-27)

Wells, F.E. & Bryce, C.W. 1986. Seashells of Western Australia. Perth : Western Australian Museum 207 pp. [166, pl. 63, fig. 611]

Wilson, B.R. & Stevenson, S.E. 1977. Cardiidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) of Western Australia. Western Australian Museum Special Publication 9: 1-114 [37, pl. 2, figs 15-18]


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
22-Aug-2023 BIVALVIA 22-Aug-2023 MOVED Mr Des Beechey Ingo Burghardt Ms Anouk Mututantri (AM)
22-Aug-2023 BIVALVIA 22-Aug-2023 MOVED Mr Des Beechey Ingo Burghardt Ms Anouk Mututantri (AM)
11-Aug-2014 11-Aug-2014 MOVED
11-Aug-2014 CARDIIDAE 31-Jul-2014 MODIFIED Dr Winston Ponder (AM) Mr Des Beechey (AM) Dr Peter Middelfart (AM)
21-Nov-2013 MODIFIED