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Family APHIDIDAE

Introduction

Of the 150 species of Aphididae known from Australia probably only 13 are endemic, about 40 may have arrived without human assistance and the remainder were probably introduced with their host plants.

Forewings with 4 oblique veins, the media often once or twice branched. Wings in most subfamilies held roof-like in repose, but held horizontally in members of several subfamilies. Antennae of both apterae and alatae mostly 5- or 6-segmented, with 2 primary rhinaria. Alatae and some apterae with secondary rhinaria on third and sometimes 4th and 5th antennal segments. Last antennal segment with a distinct terminal process. Tubular or conical siphunculi (cornicles), sometimes reduced to pores with chitinised rims are present in most species but are not detectable in some Eriosommatinae. Cauda variously developed, elongate, knobbed, 'helmet-shaped' or broadly rounded. Sexuales with mouthparts in most subfamilies, but without in eriosommatines.

Host alternation occurs in several subfamilies. The primary hosts include Anacardiaceae, Cornaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Grossulariaceae, Hammamelidaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Styracaceae, Ulmaceae and more rarely other families, most aphidid subfamilies and tribes having a particular primary host family. No Aphididae as far as is known alternate from either Picea (Pinaceae) or Juglandaceae, the respective primary hosts of Adelgidae and Phylloxeridae, although members of several subfamilies spend the whole year on these hosts. Parasitoids of the braconid subfamily Aphidiinae have been reared from members of all the major subfamilies of Aphididae, and there are also primary parasitoids in the Aphelinidae and more rarely Encyrtidae. Secondary or tertiary parasitoids (hyperparasites) include Cynipoidea, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae and Ceraphronidae. Many of the secondary parasitoid genera have closely related species as primary parasitoids of aphid predators such as Coccinellidae, Syrphidae and Neuroptera. Cecidomyid endoparasitoids are widely distributed but little known as their larvae exit through the anus to pupate in the soil, leaving little evidence.

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
29-Jun-2012 29-Jun-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)