Genus Siphanta Stål, 1862
Genus Siphanta Stål, 1862
Compiler and date details
3 March 2011 - Murray J. Fletcher
- Siphanta Stål, C. 1862. Bidrag till Rio Janeiro-traktens Hemipterfauna II. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm 3(6): 1-75 .
Type species:Poeciloptera acuta Walker, 1851 by subsequent designation, see Melichar, L. 1902. Monographie der Acanaloniiden und Flatiden (Homoptera) (Fortsetzung). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums in Wien 17: 1-253 .
- Phalainesthes Kirkaldy, G.W. 1899. Eine neue Hawaii'sche Fulgoriden-Gattung und Art. Entomologische Nachrichten. Dresden 25: 359 .
Type species:Phalainesthes schauinslandi Kirkaldy, 1899 by original designation.
- Parasalurnis Distant, W.L. 1910. Rhynchotal Notes. L. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8 5: 297-322 .
Type species:Poeciloptera roseicincta Walker, 1862 by original designation.
- Siphantoides Distant, W.L. 1910. Rhynchotal Notes. L. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8 5: 297-322 .
Type species:Siphantoides conspicua Distant, 1910 by original designation.
- Lombokia Distant, W.L. 1910. Rhynchota Malayana. Part III. Records of the Indian Museum 5: 313-338 .
Type species:Lombokia everetti Distant, 1910 by monotypy.
Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy
- Kirkaldy, G.W. 1902. Hemiptera. Fauna Hawaiiensis 3(2): 93-174  (synonymy of Phalainesthes)
- Fletcher, M.J. 1985. Revision of the genus Siphanta Stål (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae). Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 110: 1-94  (synonymy of Parasalurnis, Siphantoides and Lombokia)
This is the largest genus of Flatidae in Australia with 41 described species distributed in all states (Fletcher 1985, Fletcher 2002). Species are also known from the islands of Torres Strait and New Guinea. Only one species has not yet been recorded in Australia and this is Siphanta expatria from New Guinea. The green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Walker), is a familiar insect in Australian gardens where its nymphs are known as "Torpedo bugs" because of their instant powerful jumping response to being disturbed. S. acuta has been introduced to New Zealand, Hawaii, California and South Africa but there are no reports of it becoming a pest in these areas. Siphanta patruelis (Stål) is also widespread outside of Australia, extending into the Oriental region as far as the Philippines. It occurs as a range of colour variants which were discussed by Fletcher (2002). A number of separate lineages are apparent in the genus which were recognised by Fletcher (1985) as species groups but a phylogenetic analysis is needed to determine whether these lineages should be recognised as separate genera. The names Siphantoides Distant and Parasalurnis Distant would be applicable to the acutipennis and roseicincta species groups, respectively.
The biology of S. acuta was described by Myers (1922) in New Zealand and Muir & Kershaw (1912) described the egg, egg mass and embryological development in the same species in Hawaii. As the ovipositor structure is similar in all species, it is likely that all species lay eggs in flat ovate masses on leaf surfaces since there are no cutting valvulae capable of inserting eggs into plant tissue. Many species have wide host ranges (see Fletcher 1985: 4).
Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
ACT, NSW, NT, Qld, SA, Tas, Vic, WA: Australian Alps (AA), Arnhem Coast (ARC), Arnhem Plateau (ARP), Avon Wheatbelt (AW), Brigalow Belt North (BBN), Brigalow Belt South (BBS), Burt Plain (BRT), Carnarvon (CAR), Central Kimberley (CK), Central Mackay Coast (CMC), Coolgardie (COO), Central Ranges (CR), Cape York Peninsula (CYP), Daly Basin (DAB), Darwin Coastal (DAC), Dampierland (DL), Davenport Murchison Ranges (DMR), Darling Riverine Plains (DRP), Einasleigh Uplands (EIU), Eyre Yorke Block (EYB), Flinders Lofty Block (FLB), Flinders (FLI), Gascoyne (GAS), Gulf Fall and Uplands (GFU), Great Sandy Desert (GSD), Gulf Plains (GUP), Great Victoria Desert (GVD), Jarrah Forest (JF), Kanmantoo (KAN), MacDonnell Ranges (MAC), Murray Darling Depression (MDD), Mitchell Grass Downs (MGD), Mount Isa Inlier (MII), Mulga Lands (ML), Nandewar (NAN), Naracoorte Coastal Plain (NCP), New England Tablelands (NET), Northern Kimberley (NK), NSW North Coast (NNC), NSW South Western Slopes (NSS), Ord Victoria Plain (OVP), Pine Creek (PCK), Pilbara (PIL), Sydney Basin (SB), South East Coastal Plain (SCP), South East Corner (SEC), South Eastern Highlands (SEH), South Eastern Queensland (SEQ), Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields (SSD), Stony Plains (STP), Swan Coastal Plain (SWA), Tanami (TAN), Tiwi Cobourg (TIW), Tasmanian Northern Midlands (TNM), Tasmanian South East (TSE), Tasmanian West (TWE), Victoria Bonaparte (VB), Warren (WAR), Wet Tropics (WT)
Lord Howe Island terrestrial & freshwater, Norfolk Island terrestrial & freshwater, Torres Strait Islands terrestrial, marine & freshwater
Frons slightly convex to flat, with median longitudinal carina. Lateral carinae very short or absent. Vertex flat, slightly undulate or slightly concave, meeting frons at carinate margin which may be triangularly produced, roundly convex or nearly straight. Pronotum medially flat between lateral carinae which curve posterolaterally and do not reach hind margin of pronotum; posterior margin broadly concave. Mesonotum with two lateral carinae, flattish medially. Occasionally, median carina faintly developed. Tegmen triangular with sutural angle obtusely rounded, right-angled or slightly acute. Tegmen lacking apical lines, Hind tibia with one spine on shaft (Fletcher 1985).
Fletcher, M.J. (2005). Illustrated key to the genera of the family Flatidae found in Australia (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) http://www1.dpi.nsw.gov.au/keys/fulgor/flatid/flat00.htm
Fletcher, M.J. 1985. Revision of the genus Siphanta Stål (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae). Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 110: 1-94 
Fletcher, M.J. 1985. Revision of the genus Siphanta Stål (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae). Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 110: 1-94
Fletcher, M.J. 2002. A new species of Siphanta Stål (Hemiptera: Flatidae) from Western Australia and notes on other species of the genus. Australian Entomologist 29(3): 97-102
Muir, F. & Kershaw, J.C. 1912. The development of the mouthparts in the Homoptera, with observations on the embryo of Siphanta. Psyche (Cambridge) 19: 77–89 
Myers, J.G. 1922. Life-history of Siphanta acuta (Walk.), the large green plant-hopper. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 5: 256–263 
History of changes
|Published||As part of group||Action Date||Action Type||Compiler(s)|